Antral follicle count , with higher count giving higher success rates. Level of DNA fragmentation  as measured e. These cells are closely associated with the oocyte and share the same microenvironment, and the rate of expression of certain genes in such cells are associated with higher or lower pregnancy rate. However, such low thickness rarely occurs, and any routine use of this parameter is regarded as not justified. There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in miscarriage, multiple pregnancy or bleeding rates.
Evidence suggested that endometrial injury on the day of oocyte retrieval was associated with a lower live birth or ongoing pregnancy rate. This is directly related to the practice of transferring multiple embryos at embryo transfer. Multiple births are related to increased risk of pregnancy loss, obstetrical complications , prematurity , and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage.
Strict limits on the number of embryos that may be transferred have been enacted in some countries e. Britain, Belgium to reduce the risk of high-order multiples triplets or more , but are not universally followed or accepted.
Spontaneous splitting of embryos in the womb after transfer can occur, but this is rare and would lead to identical twins. A double blind, randomised study followed IVF pregnancies that resulted in 73 infants 33 boys and 40 girls and reported that 8. Sex ratio distortions[ edit ] Certain kinds of IVF, in particular ICSI first applied in and blastocyst transfer first applied in have been shown to lead to distortions in the sex ratio at birth.
ICSI leads to slightly more female births Standard IVF done at the second or third day leads to a normal sex ratio. Epigenetic modifications caused by extended culture leading to the death of more female embryos has been theorised as the reason why blastocyst transfer leads to a higher male sex ratio, however adding retinoic acid to the culture can bring this ratio back to normal. In males with hepatitis B , The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine advises that sperm washing is not necessary in IVF to prevent transmission, unless the female partner has not been effectively vaccinated.
Hideji Hanabusa, the vice president of the Ogikubo Hospital, states that together with his colleagues, he managed to develop a method through which scientists are able to remove HIV from sperm.
This results in swollen, painful ovaries. Mild cases can be treated with over the counter medications and cases can be resolved in the absence of pregnancy. In moderate cases, ovaries swell and fluid accumulated in the abdominal cavities and may have symptoms of heartburn, gas, nausea or loss of appetite. In severe cases patients have sudden excess abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and will result in hospitalisation. During egg retrieval, there exists a small chance of bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding structures like bowel and bladder transvaginal ultrasound aspiration as well as difficulty in breathing, chest infection, allergic reactions to medication, or nerve damage laproscopy.
Ectopic pregnancy may also occur if a fertilised egg develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes and requires immediate destruction of the fetus. IVF does not seem to be associated with an elevated risk of cervical cancer , nor with ovarian cancer or endometrial cancer when neutralising the confounder of infertility itself. Multivariate correction did not remove the significance of the association of birth defects and ICSI corrected odds ratio 1.
The authors also found that a history of infertility elevated risk itself in the absence of any treatment odds ratio 1.