Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Richard Martin soon realized that magistrates did not take the Martin Act seriously, and that it was not being reliably enforced. Martin's Act was supported by various social reformers who were not parliamentarians and an informal network had gathered around the efforts of Reverend Arthur Broome to create a voluntary organisation that would promote kindness toward animals.
Broome canvassed opinions in letters that were published or summarised in various periodicals in Broome did organise and chair a meeting of sympathisers in November where it was agreed that a Society should be created and at which Broome was named its Secretary but the attempt was short-lived.
The group met on June 16, , and included a number of MPs: It determined to send men to inspect slaughterhouses, Smithfield Market , where livestock had been sold since the 10th century, and to look into the treatment of horses by coachmen.
Edward Nicholson — , head of the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford, argued in Rights of an Animal that animals have the same natural right to life and liberty that human beings do, disregarding Descartes' mechanistic view—or what he called the "Neo-Cartesian snake"—that they lack consciousness.
He wrote that Europeans were "awakening more and more to a sense that beasts have rights, in proportion as the strange notion is being gradually overcome and outgrown, that the animal kingdom came into existence solely for the benefit and pleasure of man.
Thus, because Christian morality leaves animals out of account They can therefore be used for vivisection, hunting, coursing, bullfights, and horse racing, and can be whipped to death as they struggle along with heavy carts of stone. Shame on such a morality that is worthy of pariahs, chandalas , and mlechchhas , and that fails to recognize the eternal essence that exists in every living thing John Stuart Mill[ edit ] John Stuart Mill — , the English philosopher, also argued that utilitarianism must take animals into account, writing in Granted that any practice causes more pain to animals than it gives pleasure to man; is that practice moral or immoral?
And if, exactly in proportion as human beings raise their heads out of the slough of selfishness, they do not with one voice answer 'immoral,' let the morality of the principle of utility be for ever condemned.
Not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social, mental and moral lives too, Darwin argued. He wrote in a letter that he supported vivisection for "real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. It is a subject which makes me sick with horror Rachels writes that the animal rights advocates of the day, such as Frances Power Cobbe, did not see Darwin as an ally.
Anna Kingsford , one of the first English women to graduate in medicine, published The Perfect Way in Diet , advocating vegetarianism. An early proposal for legal rights for animals came from a group of citizens in Ashtabula County, Ohio. Around , the group proposed an amendment to the U. Bergh had been appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to a diplomatic post in Russia, and had been disturbed by the mistreatment of animals he witnessed there. He consulted with the president of the RSPCA in London, and returned to the United States to speak out against bullfights, cockfights, and the beating of horses.
He created a "Declaration of the Rights of Animals", and in persuaded the New York state legislature to pass anti-cruelty legislation and to grant the ASPCA the authority to enforce it. In , the English feminist Anna Kingsford — became one of the first English women to graduate in medicine, after studying for her degree in Paris, and the only student at the time to do so without having experimented on animals.
She was also vocal in her opposition to experimentation on animals. Ryder writes that, as the interest in animal protection grew in the late s, attitudes toward animals among scientists began to harden. They embraced the idea that what they saw as anthropomorphism —the attribution of human qualities to nonhumans—was unscientific. Animals had to be approached as physiological entities only, as Ivan Pavlov wrote in , "without any need to resort to fantastic speculations as to the existence of any possible subjective states.
He argued that "The sight of blind suffering is the spring of the deepest emotion. At tragedies, bull-fights, and crucifixions hath he hitherto been happiest on earth; and when he invented his hell, behold, that was his heaven on earth.
Considered in Relation to Social Progress. Even the leading advocates of animal rights seem to have shrunk from basing their claim on the only argument which can ultimately be held to be a really sufficient one—the assertion that animals, as well as men, though, of course, to a far less extent than men, are possessed of a distinctive individuality, and, therefore, are in justice entitled to live their lives with a due measure of that "restricted freedom" to which Herbert Spencer alludes.
If we are ever going to do justice to the lower races, we must get rid of the antiquated notion of a 'great gulf' fixed between them and mankind, and must recognize the common bond of humanity that unites all living beings in one universal brotherhood. In , Lizzy Lind af Hageby — , a Swedish feminist, and a friend, Lisa Shartau, traveled to England to study medicine at the London School of Medicine for Women, intending to learn enough to become authoritative anti-vivisection campaigners.
In the course of their studies, they witnessed several animal experiments, and published the details as The Shambles of Science: Extracts from the Diary of Two Students of Physiology Their allegations included that they had seen a brown terrier dog dissected while conscious, which prompted angry denials from the researcher, William Bayliss , and his colleagues.
After Stephen Coleridge of the National Anti-Vivisection Society accused Bayliss of having violated the Cruelty to Animals Act , Bayliss sued and won, convincing a court that the animal had been anesthetized as required by the Act. The affair culminated in riots in when 1, medical students clashed with police, suffragettes and trade unionists in Trafalgar Square. Battersea Council removed the statue from the park under cover of darkness two years later.
Kean argues that both sides saw themselves as heirs to the future. The students saw the women and trade unionists as representatives of anti-science sentimentality, while the women saw themselves as progressive, with the students and their teachers belonging to a previous age.
Veganism Members of the English Vegetarian Society who avoided the use of eggs and animal milk in the 19th and early 20th century were known as strict vegetarians. The International Vegetarian Union cites an article informing readers of alternatives to shoe leather in the Vegetarian Society's magazine in as evidence of the existence of a group that sought to avoid animal products entirely.
There was increasing unease within the Society from the start of the 20th century onwards with regards to egg and milk consumption, and in its magazine wrote that the "ideal position for vegetarians is [complete] abstinence from animal products. Salt wrote in the pamphlet that "a Vegetarian is still regarded, in ordinary society, as little better than a madman.
Watson coined the term "vegan" for those whose diet included no animal products, and they formed the British Vegan Society on November 1 that year.