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Thus, I was pleased to see a new study by Barnard College dog expert, Alexandra Horowitz , called " Smelling themselves: What a dog's nose knows - Making sense of scents ". Horowitz's study is available online. To set the scene for what she did and some of her conclusions we read: Each holds an odorous stimulus: Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from 'themselves.

Horowitz's new and novel study, so I asked her if she could take time to answer a few questions about it. Our exchange went as follows. Why did you do this study? I've always been interested in the abilities that we attribute to humans that some assume distinguish us from non-human animals -- for instance, theory of mind and self-awareness.

I've looked at theory of mind in play behavior -- following your play research! The "mirror self-recognition test" is the best experimental test of whether an animal or human animal has a sense of self: Children pass the test by age two or so; chimps pass it, dolphins, and so too do various other animals.

Dogs don't pass the test. Without knowing a priori whether dogs have self-awareness or not, I still thought that their failure at this test didn't show that they don't. So that's the kind of thing I tried to design. Had our data been published researchers likely would have tried other novel approaches, but that's another story. For more on the importance of publishing "negative results" please see " Why science needs to publish negative results.

In this area you were also an inspiration! Your study looking at Jethro's sniffing behavior of the "yellowed snow" around the area where you lived -- some yellowed by Jethro, some by others, and some moved by you -- was really asking the same kind of question: I just brought it into a more standardized setting, with a larger subject pool, and using a more traditional "marking" of the dog's smell.

Apart from the above, I also compared the dogs' time spent sniffing various odors, presented in pairs -- they included their own odor a very small bit of their own pee , their odor with another odor added "marked" , the "mark" by itself, and another dog's odor. My main result was that the dogs spent longer sniffing their own odor, marked, than their odor by itself.

That is analogous to what the mirror self-recognition studies look for: This was my hypothesis, so it wasn't entirely a surprise -- but it was entirely a delight that the data bore it out. What does they tell us about dog behavior and how should your findings be used by people who share their lives with dogs?

Most owners, I suspect, have no question about whether their dog has a kind of sense of self -- whether he or she thinks about himself or herself as being an agent with a past, present, and future -- distinct from other dogs. They assume that dogs do. My study supports that assertion. Perhaps more importantly, to me, is the idea that when we ask questions of dogs -- do they have a sense of self; do they understand what I'm saying; do they have memories -- the kinds of approaches we use to ask may not be right.

Looking at dogs' behavior in a mirror isn't relevant for this question. Looking at their reaction to their "smell reflection", as it were, is. And that's because dogs are more olfactory than visual. What are some of your current and future projects?

And I'm working on a book about dog-human interaction which I'm really excited about. In her email to me telling me about her new study, the subject line was "Jethro's example lives on," and I'm so pleased it does.

The more we know about the behavior of our dog companions, the more we can appreciate who they are and what they need and want.

It's a win-win for all. There's still a lot to learn about the cognitive capacities of dogs, and it's going to take novel research projects like this to tap into what's happening in their brains and noses.

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Free dom sex pissing lessons

Thus, I was pleased to see a new study by Barnard College dog expert, Alexandra Horowitz , called " Smelling themselves: What a dog's nose knows - Making sense of scents ". Horowitz's study is available online. To set the scene for what she did and some of her conclusions we read: Each holds an odorous stimulus: Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from 'themselves.

Horowitz's new and novel study, so I asked her if she could take time to answer a few questions about it. Our exchange went as follows. Why did you do this study? I've always been interested in the abilities that we attribute to humans that some assume distinguish us from non-human animals -- for instance, theory of mind and self-awareness. I've looked at theory of mind in play behavior -- following your play research!

The "mirror self-recognition test" is the best experimental test of whether an animal or human animal has a sense of self: Children pass the test by age two or so; chimps pass it, dolphins, and so too do various other animals. Dogs don't pass the test. Without knowing a priori whether dogs have self-awareness or not, I still thought that their failure at this test didn't show that they don't. So that's the kind of thing I tried to design.

Had our data been published researchers likely would have tried other novel approaches, but that's another story. For more on the importance of publishing "negative results" please see " Why science needs to publish negative results.

In this area you were also an inspiration! Your study looking at Jethro's sniffing behavior of the "yellowed snow" around the area where you lived -- some yellowed by Jethro, some by others, and some moved by you -- was really asking the same kind of question: I just brought it into a more standardized setting, with a larger subject pool, and using a more traditional "marking" of the dog's smell. Apart from the above, I also compared the dogs' time spent sniffing various odors, presented in pairs -- they included their own odor a very small bit of their own pee , their odor with another odor added "marked" , the "mark" by itself, and another dog's odor.

My main result was that the dogs spent longer sniffing their own odor, marked, than their odor by itself. That is analogous to what the mirror self-recognition studies look for: This was my hypothesis, so it wasn't entirely a surprise -- but it was entirely a delight that the data bore it out. What does they tell us about dog behavior and how should your findings be used by people who share their lives with dogs?

Most owners, I suspect, have no question about whether their dog has a kind of sense of self -- whether he or she thinks about himself or herself as being an agent with a past, present, and future -- distinct from other dogs. They assume that dogs do. My study supports that assertion. Perhaps more importantly, to me, is the idea that when we ask questions of dogs -- do they have a sense of self; do they understand what I'm saying; do they have memories -- the kinds of approaches we use to ask may not be right.

Looking at dogs' behavior in a mirror isn't relevant for this question. Looking at their reaction to their "smell reflection", as it were, is. And that's because dogs are more olfactory than visual. What are some of your current and future projects? And I'm working on a book about dog-human interaction which I'm really excited about. In her email to me telling me about her new study, the subject line was "Jethro's example lives on," and I'm so pleased it does. The more we know about the behavior of our dog companions, the more we can appreciate who they are and what they need and want.

It's a win-win for all. There's still a lot to learn about the cognitive capacities of dogs, and it's going to take novel research projects like this to tap into what's happening in their brains and noses.

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