Tobacco Cotton Some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still are staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, and from there, they spread around the world. Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies.
They enslaved some and cannibalised others. The indigenous people of the West Indies made excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. Europeans[ edit ] Aerial view of Jolly Harbour on the western coast of Antigua.
On his voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary , including Montserrat and Guadaloupe.
In ,  a group of English colonists left St. Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent European settlement.
From that point on, Antigua history took a dramatic turn. Codrington guided development on the island as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean". It was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson , a major figure in Antigua history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess. There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes.
In fact, some historians[ who? Slaves planting and tilling, Slaves working in the boiling house, Slaves loading barrels into a boat, Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about , when Christopher Codrington c settled at Betty's Hope plantation. He came from Barbados, bringing the latest sugar technology with him. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar.
The enslaved African adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour; they also provided medical services and skilled labour, including carpentry, for their masters. However, according to a Smithsonian Institution article, the West African slave population in the Caribbean also had a high mortality, which was compensated by regular imports of very high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa. Many of these works feature what are now considered "traditional" motifs, such as pineapples, fish and stylized serpents.
By the mids, the number of slaves had increased to 37,, up from 12, in The white population had fallen from 5, to below 3, The Slave Act of made arbitrary murder of slaves a crime, but did not do much to ease their lives. In , a man named Hercules was hanged, drawn, and quartered and three others were burnt alive, for conspiring to kill the slave owner Crump and his family.
In , an enslaved man called "Prince Klaas" whose real name was Court allegedly planned an uprising in which white slavers would be massacred. Court was crowned "King of the Coromantees " in a pasture outside the capital of St. The coronation appeared to be just a colourful spectacle but was, for the enslaved people, a ritual declaration of war on the whites slavers.
Due to information obtained from other slaves, colonists discovered the plot and suppressed it. Prince Klaas and four accomplices were caught and executed by the breaking wheel.
However, some doubts exist about Court's guilt. The site of these executions is now the Antiguan Recreation Ground. At the same time, public opinion in Great Britain gradually turned against slavery. Slaveholders often counted as 'married' only those slaves with mates on the estate.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. During his tenure, he tried to enforce the Navigation Acts. These acts prohibited trade with the newly formed United States of America. Most of the merchants in Antigua depended upon American trade , so many of them despised Captain Nelson. As a result, he was unable to get a promotion for some time after his stint on the island.
Unlike the Antiguan merchants, Nelson had a positive view of the Navigation Acts. The following quote sums up his views about the controversial Navigation Acts: Nelson knew that, by the Navigation Act, no foreigners, directly or indirectly, are permitted to carry on any trade with these possessions.
He knew, also, that the Americans had made themselves foreigners with regard to England; they had disregarded the ties of blood and language when they acquired the independence which they had been led on to claim, unhappily for themselves, before they were fit for it; and he was resolved that they should derive no profit from those ties now.
Foreigners they had made themselves, and as foreigners they were to be treated. While Nelson was stationed on Antigua, he frequently visited the nearby island of Nevis , where he met and married a young widow, Fanny Nisbet , who had previously married the son of a plantation family on Nevis. The cane workers went on strike and rioted when their leaders were arrested.
On 17 February , the U. Some countries, most notably the United States, argue that if a particular gambling transaction is initiated outside the country of Antigua then that transaction is governed by the laws of the country where the transaction was initiated.
This argument was brought before World Trade Organization and was deemed incorrect. Second, a rider to the arbitration ruling affirmed the right of Antigua to take retaliatory steps in view of the prior failure of the US to comply with GATS. These included the rare, but not unprecedented, right to disregard intellectual property obligations to the US. Antigua is therefore able to recoup some of the claimed loss of trade by hosting and taxing companies whose business model depends on immunity from TRIPS provisions.
The mission provided high rate telemetry data for the Eastern Range and its space launches. The unit was inactivated due to US government budget cuts.