Jewish political movements and List of Jews in politics A range of moral and political views is evident early in the history of Judaism, that serves to partially explain the diversity that is apparent among secular Jews who are often influenced by moral beliefs that can be found in Jewish scripture, and traditions. In recent centuries, secular Jews in Europe and the Americas have tended towards the liberal political left [ citation needed ], and played key roles in the birth of the 19th century's labor movement and socialism.
While Diaspora Jews have also been represented in the conservative side of the political spectrum, even politically conservative Jews have tended to support pluralism more consistently than many other elements of the political right. Some scholars  attribute this to the fact that Jews are not expected to proselytize , derived from Halakha. This lack of a universalizing religion is combined with the fact that most Jews live as minorities in diaspora countries, and that no central Jewish religious authority has existed since CE.
He was one of the most influential of the classical economists   In the Middle Ages , European laws prevented Jews from owning land and gave them powerful incentive to go into other professions that the indigenous Europeans were not willing to follow.
In most of Europe until the late 18th century, and in some places to an even later date, Jews were prohibited by Roman Catholic governments and others from owning land. On the other hand, the Church, because of a number of Bible verses e. As the Canon law did not apply to Jews, they were not liable to the ecclesiastical punishments which were placed upon usurers by the popes. Christian rulers gradually saw the advantage of having a class of men like the Jews who could supply capital for their use without being liable to excommunication , and so the money trade of western Europe by this means fell into the hands of the Jews.
However, in almost every instance where large amounts were acquired by Jews through banking transactions the property thus acquired fell either during their life or upon their death into the hands of the king. It was often for this reason that kings supported the Jews, and even objected to them becoming Christians because in that case they could not be forced to give up money won by usury.
Thus, both in England and in France the kings demanded to be compensated for every Jew converted. As a modern system of capital began to develop, loans became necessary for commerce and industry. Jews were able to gain a foothold in the new field of finance by providing these services: Science and technology in Israel , Jewish medicine , and Hebrew astronomy The strong Jewish tradition of religious scholarship often left Jews well prepared for secular scholarship.
In some times and places, this was countered by banning Jews from studying at universities , or admitted them only in limited numbers see Jewish quota. Over the centuries, Jews have been poorly represented among land-holding classes, but far better represented in academia, professions, finance, commerce and many scientific fields.
The structure of DNA. The Jewish X-ray crystallographer , Rosalind Franklin , made a crucial contribution to the discovery of DNA's structure, when she discovered its double helix structure with a backbone consisting of phosphate groups    The early Jewish activity in science can be found in the Hebrew bible where some of the books contain descriptions of the physical world. Biblical cosmology provides sporadic glimpses that may be stitched together to form a Biblical impression of the physical universe.
There have been comparisons between the Bible, with passages such as from the Genesis creation narrative , and the astronomy of classical antiquity more generally. One suggested ritual, for example, deals with the proper procedure for cleansing a leper Leviticus It is a fairly elaborate process, which is to be performed after a leper was already healed of leprosy Leviticus The Torah proscribes Intercropping Lev. During Medieval era astronomy was a primary field among Jewish scholars and was widely studied and practiced.
The lunar crater Zagut is named after Zacuto's name. Bar Hiyya proved by geometro-mechanical method of indivisibles the following equation for any circle: He was the first European to describe Asiatic tropical diseases, notably cholera; he performed an autopsy on a cholera victim, the first recorded autopsy in India.
Bonet de Lattes known chiefly as the inventor of an astronomical ring-dial by means of which solar and stellar altitudes can be measured and the time determined with great precision by night as well as by day. Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist and is considered as one of the most prominent scientists in history, often regarded as the "father of modern physics".
His revolutionary work on the relativity theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century. When first published, relativity superseded a year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars , black holes , and gravitational waves. Castle Romeo nuclear test , a large number of Jewish scientists were involved in Project Manhattan The mathematician and physicist Alexander Friedmann pioneered the theory that universe was expanding governed by a set of equations he developed now known as the Friedmann equations.
Arno Allan Penzias , the physicist and radio astronomer co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which helped establish the Big Bang theory, the scientists Robert Herman and Ralph Alpher had also worked on that field. In quantum mechanics Jewish role was significant as well and many of most influential figures and pioneers of the theory were Jewish: Sigmund Freud , known as the father of psychoanalysis , is one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century.
In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst,  Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference , establishing its central role in the analytic process.
His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind. Emmy Noether was an influential mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by many prominent scientists as the most important woman in the history of mathematics,   [ incomplete short citation ] she revolutionized the theories of rings , fields , and algebras.
In physics, Noether's theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws.
Jewish inventors and List of Israeli inventions and discoveries Beside Scientific discoveries and researches, Jews have created significant and influential innovations in a large variety of fields such as the listed samples: Siegfried Marcus - automobile pioneer, inventor of the first car ; Emile Berliner - developer of the disc record phonograph ; Mikhail Gurevich - co-inventor of the MIG aircraft ; Theodore Maiman - inventor of the laser ; Robert Adler.