Dharma, Artha and Kama are aims of everyday life, while Moksha is release from the cycle of death and rebirth. The Kama Sutra Burton translation says: Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should always be first practised by the king for the livelihood of men is to be obtained from it only.
Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, they should prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to the general rule. When motives conflict, the higher ideal is to be followed. Thus, in making money, virtue must not be compromised, but earning a living should take precedence over pleasure; however, there are exceptions.
Also, the Buddha preached a Kama Sutra, which is located in the Atthakavagga sutra number 1. This Kama Sutra, however, is of a very different nature, as it warns against the dangers that come with the search for pleasures of the senses.
Many in the Western world wrongly consider the Kama Sutra to be a manual for tantric sex. Translations The most widely known English translation of the Kama Sutra was privately printed in It is usually attributed to renowned orientalist and author Sir Richard Francis Burton , but the chief work was done by the Indian archaeologist Bhagwan Lal Indraji , under the guidance of Burton's friend, the Indian civil servant Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot , and with the assistance of a student, Shivaram Parshuram Bhide.
Burton says the following in its introduction: It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English language.
While translating with the pundits the ' Anunga Runga , or the stage of love', reference was frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that opinion.
The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanscrit[sic] literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state.
The copy of the manuscript obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares , Calcutta and Jaipur for copies of the manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called 'Jayamanglia' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit: I had the assistance of a Commentary called 'Jayamangla' for correcting the portion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all the other copies I had were far too incorrect.
However, I took that portion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with each other. The philologist and Sanskritist Professor Chlodwig Werba, of the Institute of Indology at the University of Vienna , regards the translation as being second only in accuracy to the academic German-Latin text published by Richard Schmidt in In the early s, its chapter on sexual positions began circulating on the internet as an independent text and today is often assumed to be the whole of the Kama Sutra.
He includes English translations of two important commentaries: The Jayamangala commentary, written in Sanskrit by Yashodhara during the Middle Ages, as page footnotes. A modern commentary in Hindi by Devadatta Shastri, as endnotes.
He leaves references to the sexual organs as in the original: Doniger contributed the Sanskrit expertise while Kakar provided a psychoanalytic interpretation of the text.