Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message There is much discussion about the distinction between shibari and kinbaku, and whether one term is more appropriate than another.
One modern distinction which is gaining popularity among westerners wanting to distinguish the terms is that shibari refers to purely artistic, aesthetic rope, whilst kinbaku refers to the artistic, connective, sensual, sexual practice as a whole.
While thousands of books and articles have been written in Japanese about shibari, no one has found evidence[ citation needed ] of there being any thought given to the distinction between these words among Japanese practitioners of the art. A traditional view is that the term 'shibari' is a Western misuse of Japanese vocabulary.
The word denotes tying in Japanese, but in a generic way, and traditionally not in the context of bondage. The names for many particular ties include 'shibari', but it is not traditional to call the entire activity that way in the same way as there are ' Diamond knots ' and ' Portuguese Bowline Knots ', but 'knotting' does not mean bondage.
Instead, Kinbaku is the term for artistic or erotic tying within traditional Japanese rope bondage circles. An even more traditional view is that shibari is a term used for erotic bondage in Japan that is practically interchangeable with the term kinbaku.
One of Nurkei Chimuo's how-to video series from the s, is titled Introduction to Shibari. Most Japanese kinbakushi do not object to the term shibari, as it's common vernacular in the global community. Another explanation can be found in the linguistic roots of the two words, which are written using the same kanji symbol as the starting point for the word. This rope is referred to as "Asanawa" usually translated as "hemp rope" the word 'asa' as hemp and 'nawa' as rope,    however this is using the more generic form of the word [hemp] referring to a range of natural fibre ropes rather than those pertaining to a particular plant.
In recent history a range of rope types have been used for Kinbaku in Japan though Nawashi rarely use synthetic fibre rope and most often use jute. Aesthetics of Japanese bondage[ edit ] The aesthetics of the bound person's position is important: Sometimes, asymmetric and often intentionally uncomfortable positions are employed.
In particular, Japanese bondage is very much about the way the rope is applied and the pleasure is more in the journey than the destination. In this way the rope becomes an extension of the nawashi 's hands and is used to communicate. The natural fibers easily lock to each other which means the bondage can be held together by the friction of twists and turns or very simple knots.
Traditionally, multiple meter lengths are used. Shibari has a strong presence in the works of some renowned contemporary artists, mainly photographers, like Nobuyoshi Araki in Japan, Jim Duvall in the United States and Hikari Kesho in Europe. Kinbaku became widely popular in Japan in the s through magazines such as Kitan Club and Yomikiri Romance, which published the first naked bondage photographs. In the s, people such as Eikichi Osada began to appear performing live SM shows often including a large amount of rope bondage, today these performers are often referred to as Nawashi rope master or Bakushi from kinbakushi, meaning bondage master.
In recent years, Kinbaku has become popular in the Western BDSM scene in its own right and has also profoundly influenced bondage, combining to produce many 'fusion' styles. Technique[ edit ] Kinbaku is based on fairly specific rope patterns, many of them derived from Hojojutsu ties though significantly modified to make them safer for bondage use. Many Hojojutsu ties were deliberately designed to cause harm to a prisoner and are therefore not suitable for erotic bondage.
Of particular importance are the Ushiro Takatekote a type of box tie which surrounds the chest and arms , which forms the basis of many Kinbaku ties, and the Ebi , or "Shrimp", which was originally designed as a torture tie and codified as part of the Edo period torture techniques.
Generally speaking, Kinbaku is practised with ropes of 6—8 meters 20—26 feet in length. Various techniques are used to make the natural fiber ropes softer. It does not convey the meaning of sexual bondage outside SM circles. However, some experts, e.
Kinoko Hajime and Osada Steve, make a distinction from 'shibari' in that it is used to refer to sessions with a strong emotional exchange.