Comparison of birth control methods: Effectiveness of various methods The effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception , can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently.
Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms incorrectly or do not use condoms at every act of intercourse. Rates are generally presented for the first year of use. They have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both men and women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS , genital herpes , cervical cancer , genital warts , syphilis , chlamydia , gonorrhea , and other diseases.
The NIH review concluded that condom use significantly reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men. Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases like HPV and herpes may be transmitted by direct contact. Exposure to human papillomavirus, even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes. The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes.
The rate of breakage is between 0. The limited studies that have been done found that the simultaneous use of multiple condoms decreases the risk of condom breakage. Many condom manufacturers offer "snug" or "magnum" sizes. The person may have run out of condoms, or be traveling and not have a condom with them, or simply dislike the feel of condoms and decide to "take a chance". This type of behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure as opposed to method or perfect use failure.
One motive is to have a child against a partner's wishes or consent. It is important that some space be left in the tip of the condom so that semen has a place to collect; otherwise it may be forced out of the base of the device. After use, it is recommended the condom be wrapped in tissue or tied in a knot, then disposed of in a trash receptacle. Condoms are also used during fellatio to reduce the likelihood of contracting STIs.
Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts sex, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay. Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation. Advantages of dulled sensation can include prolonged erection and delayed ejaculation; disadvantages might include a loss of some sexual excitement.
As a result, Measure B, a law requiring the use of condoms in the production of pornographic films , was passed. A recent American Psychological Association APA press release supported the inclusion of information about condoms in sex education, saying "comprehensive sexuality education programs These are most commonly obtained through masturbation , but an alternative to masturbation is use of a special collection condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse.
Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation, and some religions prohibit masturbation entirely. Also, compared with samples obtained from masturbation, semen samples from collection condoms have higher total sperm counts, sperm motility, and percentage of sperm with normal morphology.
For this reason, they are believed to give more accurate results when used for semen analysis, and to improve the chances of pregnancy when used in procedures such as intracervical or intrauterine insemination. Private sperm donors may also use a collection condom to obtain samples through masturbation or by sexual intercourse with a partner and will transfer the ejaculate from the collection condom to a specially designed container.
The sperm is transported in such containers, in the case of a donor, to a recipient woman to be used for insemination, and in the case of a woman's partner, to a fertility clinic for processing and use.
However, transportation may reduce the fecundity of the sperm. Collection condoms may also be used where semen is produced at a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Condom therapy is sometimes prescribed to infertile couples when the female has high levels of antisperm antibodies.
The theory is that preventing exposure to her partner's semen will lower her level of antisperm antibodies, and thus increase her chances of pregnancy when condom therapy is discontinued.
However, condom therapy has not been shown to increase subsequent pregnancy rates. Ongoing military utilization began during World War II, and includes covering the muzzles of rifle barrels to prevent fouling,  the waterproofing of firing assemblies in underwater demolitions,  and storage of corrosive materials and garrotes by paramilitary agencies.
These methods are very dangerous and potentially lethal; if the condom breaks, the drugs inside become absorbed into the bloodstream and can cause an overdose. Condoms come in different sizes, from snug to larger, and shapes. Female condom Main article: Female condom A female condom Male condoms have a tight ring to form a seal around the penis while female condoms typically have a large stiff ring to keep them from slipping into the body orifice.
The Female Health Company produced a female condom that was initially made of polyurethane, but newer versions are made of nitrile. Medtech Products produces a female condom made of latex.
Every latex condom is tested for holes with an electric current. If the condom passes, it is rolled and packaged. In addition, a portion of each batch of condoms is subject to water leak and air burst testing. Latex condoms are damaged when used with oil-based substances as lubricants , such as petroleum jelly , cooking oil , baby oil , mineral oil , skin lotions , suntan lotions , cold creams , butter or margarine.
In May the U. Condoms may also be made from other synthetic materials, such as AT resin , and most recently polyisoprene. Polyisoprene is a synthetic version of natural rubber latex. While significantly more expensive,  it has the advantages of latex such as being softer and more elastic than polyurethane condoms  without the protein which is responsible for latex allergies. Unlike polyurethane condoms, they cannot be used with an oil-based lubricant.
Although they are generally effective as a contraceptive by blocking sperm, it is presumed that they are likely less effective than latex in preventing the transmission of agents that cause STDs , because of pores in the material.
Lambskin condoms are also significantly more expensive than other types and as slaughter by-products they are also not vegetarian. Spermicide Some latex condoms are lubricated at the manufacturer with a small amount of a nonoxynol-9 , a spermicidal chemical. According to Consumer Reports , condoms lubricated with spermicide have no additional benefit in preventing pregnancy, have a shorter shelf life, and may cause urinary-tract infections in women. However, it recommends using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all.
The studs or ribs can be located on the inside, outside, or both; alternatively, they are located in specific sections to provide directed stimulation to either the g-spot or frenulum.
Many textured condoms which advertise "mutual pleasure" also are bulb-shaped at the top, to provide extra stimulation to the penis. Other The anti-rape condom is another variation designed to be worn by women.
It is designed to cause pain to the attacker, hopefully allowing the victim a chance to escape. These condoms are designed to maximize sperm life. Some condom-like devices are intended for entertainment only, such as glow-in-the dark condoms. These novelty condoms may not provide protection against pregnancy and STDs. Most surveys of contraceptive use are among married women, or women in informal unions.
Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world: On average, in developed countries, condoms are the most popular method of birth control: In the average less-developed country, condoms are less common: Published in , it describes what is possibly the first use of condoms.
Before the 19th century Whether condoms were used in ancient civilizations is debated by archaeologists and historians. Condoms seem to have been used for contraception, and to have been known only by members of the upper classes. In China, glans condoms may have been made of oiled silk paper, or of lamb intestines. In Japan, they were made of tortoise shell or animal horn.
The cloths he described were sized to cover the glans of the penis , and were held on with a ribbon. The first indication that these devices were used for birth control, rather than disease prevention, is the theological publication De iustitia et iure On justice and law by Catholic theologian Leonardus Lessius , who condemned them as immoral.
In the late 16th century, Dutch traders introduced condoms made from "fine leather" to Japan. Unlike the horn condoms used previously, these leather condoms covered the entire penis. In the 18th century, condoms were available in a variety of qualities and sizes, made from either linen treated with chemicals, or "skin" bladder or intestine softened by treatment with sulfur and lye.
Writers on contraception tended to prefer other methods of birth control to the condom. By the late 19th century many feminists expressed distrust of the condom as a contraceptive, as its use was controlled and decided upon by men alone.
They advocated instead for methods which were controlled by women, such as diaphragms and spermicidal douches. Posters such as these were intended to promote abstinence. Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, American rates of sexually transmitted diseases skyrocketed.
Causes cited by historians include effects of the American Civil War , and the ignorance of prevention methods promoted by the Comstock laws. They generally taught that abstinence was the only way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
The stigma against victims of these diseases was so great that many hospitals refused to treat people who had syphilis. Freud was especially opposed to the condom because he thought it cut down on sexual pleasure. Some feminists continued to oppose male-controlled contraceptives such as condoms. In the Church of England's Lambeth Conference condemned all "unnatural means of conception avoidance". London's Bishop Arthur Winnington-Ingram complained of the huge number of condoms discarded in alleyways and parks, especially after weekends and holidays.
This proved to have advantages for the manufacture of condoms; unlike the sheep's gut condoms, they could stretch and did not tear quickly when used. The rubber vulcanization process was patented by Goodyear in Besides this type, small rubber condoms covering only the glans were often used in England and the United States.
There was more risk of losing them and if the rubber ring was too tight, it would constrict the penis. This type of condom was the original "capote" French for condom , perhaps because of its resemblance to a woman's bonnet worn at that time, also called a capote. For many decades, rubber condoms were manufactured by wrapping strips of raw rubber around penis-shaped molds, then dipping the wrapped molds in a chemical solution to cure the rubber. Latex condoms required less labor to produce than cement-dipped rubber condoms, which had to be smoothed by rubbing and trimming.
The use of water to suspend the rubber instead of gasoline and benzene eliminated the fire hazard previously associated with all condom factories.