Interpersonal distance[ edit ] Hall described the interpersonal distances of man the relative distances between people in four distinct zones: Horizontal[ edit ] A chart depicting Edward T.
The distance surrounding a person forms a space. The space within intimate distance and personal distance is called personal space. The space within social distance and out of personal distance is called social space. And the space within public distance is called public space. Personal space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs.
Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety when their personal space is encroached. An intimate zone is reserved for close friends, lovers, children and close family members. Another zone is used for conversations with friends, to chat with associates, and in group discussions. A further zone is reserved for strangers, newly formed groups, and new acquaintances.
A fourth zone is used for speeches, lectures, and theater; essentially, public distance is that range reserved for larger audiences. However, in modern society, especially in crowded urban communities, it can be difficult to maintain personal space, for example when in a crowded train , elevator or street. Many people find such physical proximity to be psychologically disturbing and uncomfortable,  though it is accepted as a fact of modern life.
In an impersonal, crowded situation, eye contact tends to be avoided. Even in a crowded place, preserving personal space is important, and intimate and sexual contact , such as frotteurism and groping , is unacceptable physical contact.
The amygdala is suspected of processing people's strong reactions to personal space violations since these are absent in those in which it is damaged and it is activated when people are physically close. First, it is activated by such proximity, and second, in those with complete bilateral damage to their amygdala, such as patient S.
Further, our findings are consistent with those in monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions, who stay within closer proximity to other monkeys or people, an effect we suggest arises from the absence of strong emotional responses to personal space violation. It is the most inviolate form of territory. Social distance between people is reliably correlated with physical distance, as are intimate and personal distance, according to the delineations below.
Hall did not mean for these measurements to be strict guidelines that translate precisely to human behavior, but rather a system for gauging the effect of distance on communication and how the effect varies between cultures and other environmental factors. Vertical[ edit ] The distances mentioned above are horizontal distance. There is also vertical distance that communicates something between people. In this case, however, vertical distance is often understood to convey the degree of dominance or sub-ordinance in a relationship.
Looking up at or down on another person can be taken literally in many cases, with the higher person asserting greater status. Used in this way, an understanding of vertical distance can become a tool for improved teacher-student communication. On the other hand, a disciplinarian might put this information to use in order to gain psychological advantage over an unruly student.
Biometrics Hall used biometric concepts to categorize, explain, and explore the ways people connect in space. These variations in positioning are impacted by a variety of nonverbal communicative factors, listed below. This category deals with how closely the participants are to touching, from being completely outside of body-contact distance to being in physical contact, which parts of the body are in contact, and body part positioning.
This behavioral category concerns how participants are touching one another, such as caressing , holding, feeling, prolonged holding, spot touching, pressing against, accidental brushing, or not touching at all. This category denotes the amount of eye contact between participants. Four sub-categories are defined, ranging from eye-to-eye contact to no eye contact at all.
This category denotes the amount of body heat that each participant perceives from another. Four sub-categories are defined: This category deals in the kind and degree of odor detected by each participant from the other. This category deals in the vocal effort used in speech. Seven sub-categories are defined: Neuropsychology Whereas Hall's work uses human interactions to demonstrate spatial variation in proxemics, the field of neuropsychology describes personal space in terms of the kinds of "nearness" to an individual body.
The space that occurs outside the reach of an individual. The space within reach of any limb of an individual. Thus, to be "within arm's length" is to be within one's peripersonal space. The space just outside our bodies but which might be near to touching it. Visual-tactile perceptive fields overlap in processing this space.
For example, an individual might see a feather as not touching their skin but still experience the sensation of being tickled when it hovers just above their hand. Other examples include the blowing of wind, gusts of air, and the passage of heat. Focal-extrapersonal space is located in the lateral temporo-frontal pathways at the center of our vision, is retinotopically centered and tied to the position of our eyes, and is involved in object search and recognition.
Action-extrapersonal-space is located in the medial temporo-frontal pathways, spans the entire space, and is head-centered and involved in orientation and locomotion in topographical space.
Action-extrapersonal space provides the "presence" of our world. Numerous studies involving peripersonal and extrapersonal neglect have shown that peripersonal space is located dorsally in the parietal lobe whereas extrapersonal space is housed ventrally in the temporal lobe. Organization of space in territories[ edit ] Two people not affecting each other's personal space Reaction of two people whose regions of personal space are in conflict While personal space describes the immediate space surrounding a person, territory refers to the area which a person may "lay claim to" and defend against others.
This type of territory is rarely in the constant control of just one person. However, people might come to temporarily own areas of public territory. Cultural factors[ edit ] Personal space is highly variable, due to cultural differences and personal preferences. On average, preferences vary significantly between countries. The cultural practices of the United States show considerable similarities to those in northern and central European regions, such as Germany , Scandinavia , and the United Kingdom.
Greeting rituals tend to be the same in Europe and in the United States, consisting of minimal body contact—often confined to a simple handshake. The main cultural difference in proxemics is that residents of the United States like to keep more open space between themselves and their conversation partners roughly 4 feet 1.
Residents of India or Japan tend to have a smaller personal space than those in the Mongolian steppe , both in regard to home and individual spaces. Different expectations of personal space can lead to difficulties in intercultural communication. Realizing and recognizing these cultural differences improves cross-cultural understanding , and helps eliminate discomfort people may feel if the interpersonal distance is too large "stand-offish" or too small intrusive.
Adaptation[ edit ] People make exceptions to and modify their space requirements. A number of relationships may allow for personal space to be modified, including familial ties, romantic partners, friendships and close acquaintances, where there is a greater degree of trust and personal knowledge.
Personal space is affected by a person's position in society, with more affluent individuals expecting a larger personal space. Males typically use more personal space than females, and personal space has a positive relation to age people use more as they get older. Most people have a fully developed adult sense of personal space by age twelve. According to the psychologist Robert Sommer , one method of dealing with violated personal space is dehumanization.
He argues that on the subway, crowded people often imagine those intruding on their personal space as inanimate. Behavior is another method: For example, those who do not have experience dealing with disabled persons tend to create more distance during encounters because they are uncomfortable.
Others may judge that the disabled person needs to have an increase of touch, volume, or proximity. While physical proximity cannot be achieved when people are connected virtually, perceived proximity can be attempted, and several studies have shown that it is a crucial indicator in the effectiveness of virtual communication technologies.
The mere-exposure effect originally referred to the tendency of a person to positively favor those who they have been physically exposed to most often. This work suggests that the more someone communicates virtually with another person, the more he is able to envision that person's appearance and workspace, therefore fostering a sense of personal connection. Some studies emphasize the importance of shared physical territory in achieving common ground,  while others find that common ground can be achieved virtually, by communicating often.
Face-to-face interaction is often used as a tool to maintain the culture, authority, and norms of an organization or workplace. The importance of physical proximity in co-workers is often emphasized. Advertising[ edit ] Part of Facebook's earning comes from on-site advertising. During these years, Facebook has offered companies the ability to post and present content in a timeline format on their free brand or business page.
By doing so, companies can deliver a more comprehensive promotional message and increase audience engagement. If a user "likes" a brand page, corporate content posted on the brand page will appear in the user's news feed. Many users felt angry about the overly implanted ads that showed up in their Facebook timeline. Those that "hate" receiving targeted messages on their social media profiles could be experiencing frustration.
How much space is there between the characters? What is suggested by characters who are close to or, conversely, far away from each other? Do distances change as the film progresses? Adolescents favor texting or computer-mediated communication as an alternative to the more directly combative face-to-face interactions because it takes advantage of evading imposed social norms such as " school rules ", which are likely to be especially repressive of aggression involving females.
Both behaviors include harassment, humiliation, teasing and aggression. Cyberbullying presents unique challenges in the sense that the perpetrator can attempt to be anonymous, and attacks can happen at any time of day or night.
In other words, social media magnifies the face-to-face social space into a virtual space where a cyber bully can say anything about the victims without the pressure of facing them. Virtual environments[ edit ] Bailenson, Blascovich, Beall, and Loomis conducted an experiment in , testing Argyle and Dean's equilibrium theory's speculation of an inverse relationship between mutual gaze, a nonverbal cue signaling intimacy, and interpersonal distance.
Participants were immersed in a 3D virtual room in which a virtual human representation that is, an embodied agent stood. Participants in the study clearly did not treat the agent as a mere animation. On the contrary, the results suggest that, in virtual environments, people were influenced by the 3D model and respected personal space of the humanoid representation. The result of the experiment also indicated that women are more affected by the gaze behaviors of the agent and adjust their personal space more accordingly than do men.
However, men do subjectively assign gaze behavior to the agent, and their proxemic behavior reflects this perception. Furthermore, both men and women demonstrate less variance in their proxemic behavior when the agent displays mutual gaze behavior than when the agent does not. Other researchers have established that proxemics can be a valuable tool for measuring the behavioral realism of an agent or an avatar.