Text Intro Just to give a brief explanation of the Ugaritic texts, which are the primary comparison texts, they date from the 14th century BCE and before.
The following is a list of the Ugaritic text abbreviations. Unfortunately there are different notation systems created by different authors, for the same text. As I stated earlier, these deities cross borders and boundaries, taking beliefs with them, merging and carrying on through time. Rather, developmental process began, at the latest, at the end of the Bronze Age, gained momentum during the Iron Age, and finally issued it in a practical, and at certain points, even theoretical, monotheism.
It seems that particular gods or better, their priesthoods gobbled up other gods, so to speak, and so took over their functions and identities. Thus eventuated a monopoly on divine worship — a development that certainly also had something to do with economic and political interests.
The old branch of Egyptian monotheism that Lemeche is referring to is that of the primal creator Ptah, before the later Egyptian trinity was formed and the solar aspects were mainly attributed to Ra, said to be the son of Ptah.
We cannot limit our research to one time, one location or one belief; not if we want to find the truth. They are not epics like Homers works, but deal more with history, astronomy, ethics, genealogies, farming, metal works, etc.
One particular passage that I would like to share is for the historical application of the Indo-European patriarchal changes that swept so much of the land, but also for the obvious example of yet another assimilation of another cultures writings and beliefs by a patriarchal priesthood scribe for the Bible.
This Hesiod writing is important because it actually relates information about the lands and peoples, their state of affairs prior to the patriarchal takeovers that Hesiod relates as the men of bronze, the time of warfare and heroes.
Archaeologically, this pattern of events and metal usage is confirmed, though Hesiod would not have had many written records from the golden age, to reference. This patriarchal wave is further explained in the Clan Mother to Goddess section below.
The biblical passage is that of Daniel 2, the supposed dream by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babel. The dream is about a statue of various metals on the body parts. Daniel interprets what these metals mean, representing different kingdoms that are, and will come to pass. This is not the study to provide all the linguistic, historical and archaeological evidence to this fact.
The book states that the head was gold, representing the Babylonians. The chest and arms were silver, representing the Medes and Persians. The belly and thighs were bronze, representing the Hellenes [Greeks] and the legs of iron and feet mixed of iron and clay, representing a worse, inferior government, strong, crushing and breaking everything. This is the time period the book is actually written and for self preservation, does not name the then current Roman government.
In chapter 7, another dream is provided about 4 beasts, each again representing the governments. The 4th beast was more terrifying and frightening, very powerful with large iron teeth that crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot anything that was left. The following Hesiod account, written over years before the book of Daniel, is in Works and Days, verses , based on the translation by Dorothea Wender. The gods, who live on Olympia , first fashioned a golden race of mortal men; these lived in the reign of Kronos, king of heaven, and like the gods they lived with happy hearts untouched by work or sorrow.
Vile old age never appeared, but always lively-limbed, far from all ills, they feasted happily. Death came to them as sleep, and all good things were theirs; ungrudgingly, the fertile earth gave up her fruits unasked.
Happy to be at peace, they lived with every want supplied, rich in their flocks, dear to the blessed gods. And then this race was hidden in the ground.
But still they live as spirits of the earth, holy and good, guardians who keep off harm, givers of wealth; this kingly right is heirs. The gods, who live on Olympia , next fashioned a lesser, silver race of men; unlike the gold in stature or in mind. When they were grown and reached their prime, they lived brief, anguished lived, from foolishness, for they could not control themselves, but recklessly injured each other and forsook the gods; they did not sacrifice, as all tribes must, but left the holy altars bare.
And, angry, Zeus the son of Kronos, hid this race away, for they dishonored the Olympian gods. This passage represents the Indo-European patriarchal perspective of a matrilineal society, where the children were considered the offspring of the mother and were raised in equalitarian, agriculture societies, not warfare, weaponry training of the hero worshipping PIE cultures.
These cultures were invaded and wiped out or partly assimilated by the PIE cultures bringing the Olympian religion to the Greek territories. An archaeological example of their entering the territory of Kenaan is that of the marked increase in shrines and temples. This is the same pattern that occurs archaeologically in all these invaded cultures. The earth then hid this second race, and they are called the spirits of the underworld, inferior to the gold, but honored, too.
And Zeus the father made a race of bronze, sprung from the ash tree, worse than the silver race, but strange and full of power. And they loved the groans and violence of war; they ate no bread; their hearts were flinty hard; they were terrible men; their strength was great, their arms and shoulder and limbs invincible.
Their weapons were of bronze, their houses bronze; their tools were bronze; black iron was not known. Although they were great soldiers, they were captured by black Death, and left the shining brightness of the sun.
But when this race was covered by the earth, the son of Kronos made another, fourth, upon the fruitful land, more just and good, a godlike race of heroes, who are called the demi-gods — the race before our own. The whirling Ocean, on the Blessed Isles. Three times a year the blooming, fertile earth bears honeyed fruits for them, the happy ones. And Kronos is their king, far from the gods, for Zeus released him from his bonds, and these, the race of heroes, well deserve their fame.
Far-seeing Zeus then made another race, the fifth, who live now on the fertile earth. I wish I were not of this race, that I had died before, or had not yet been born. This is the race of iron. Now, by day, men work and grieve unceasingly; by night, they waste away and die. The gods will give harsh burdens, but will mingle in some good; Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men, when babies shall be born with graying hair.
Father will have no common bond with son, neither will guest with host, nor friend with friend; the brother-love of past days will be gone. Men will dishonor parents, who grow old too quickly, and will blame and criticize with cruel words. Wretched and godless, they refusing to repay their bringing up, will cheat their aged parents of their due. Men will destroy the towns of other men. The just, the good, the man who keeps his word will be despised, but men will praise the bad and insolent.
Might will be right, and shame will cease to be. Men will do injury to better men by speaking crooked words and adding lying oaths; and everywhere harsh-voiced and sullen-faced and loving harm, envy will walk along with wretched men. Last, to Olympia from the broad-pathed Earth, hiding their loveliness in robes of white, to join the gods, abandoning mankind, will go the spirits Aidos and Nemesis [Righteousness and Shame]. And only grievous troubles will be left for men, and no defense against our wrongs.
Not only does this Hesiod account show a basis for the Daniel passages, but it relates what archaeologists have been uncovering, patriarchal Proto-Indo-European cultures, that came in various waves between and BCE, from the western Eurasian Steppe territories and spread west into Old Europe; south, following the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, all the way down to the Harappan territory modern day northern India , and southwest into ancient Anatolia.
While many culture migrations and invasions may not be of interest to readers, at least from a biblical point of view, these invasions and subsequent migrations are very important because they form the patriarchal Proto-Indo-European base that the Tanak Old Testament and New Testament are founded on.
Yes, the Tanak Jewish Bible is a document in a Semitic language, but these invaders adopted the proto writing and scripts of those they invaded, which is why there are so many similarities in Indo-European languages that have very distinctive script styles.
On top of this factor, according to the Tanak, the northern and southern tribes of Israel were carted off into captivity by the Assyrians and Babylonian, both of which are Indo-European based invader cultures, smack in Indo-European Aryan territory.
Much was assimilated by these Semites in captivity. Then there is the question of the Hebrew tribes origins, which is a whole other study. The scope of this subject is much too large for this particular study, needing to be its own study, but I will try and present, as condensed as possible, the basics of this PIE culture and the ramifications it has on the bible.
For those of you who are familiar with your bibles, you will quickly see the origins of many of the accounts in the bible, many of which deal with their deities and mythology. Proto-Indo-Europeans and the Patriarchy Before I get into any quotes and information, I want to clarify something right up front, there are some writers, scholars and even archaeologists, when discussing the subject of the Proto-Indo-European culture, especially in light of the invasions on their neighbors, who frequently refer to the neighbors as Goddess cultures, Earth Mother worshippers, etc.
This is explained further on in the Clan Mother to Goddess section, but I want to give you a heads up now, when you see these terms and phrases in the quotes, ignore it and read instead — matrilineal agricultural culture.
This will all become clear very shortly. Below is a map, showing the western portion of the Eurasian Steppe territory modern day Ukraine.