Prostitution Prostitution is a main component of the sex industry and may take place in a brothel , at a facility provided by the prostitute, at a client's hotel room, in a parked car, or on the street. Often this is arranged through a pimp or an escort agency. Prostitution involves a prostitute or sex worker providing sexual services to a client.
In some cases, the prostitute is at liberty to determine whether she or he will engage in a particular type of sexual activity, but forced prostitution and sexual slavery does exist in some places around the world. The legality of prostitution and associated activities soliciting, brothels, procuring varies by jurisdiction. Yet even where it is illegal, a thriving underground business usually exists because of high demand and the booming revenue that can be made by pimps, brothel owners, escort agencies, and traffickers.
Sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution. For instance, there are legal brothels in Nevada, USA , due to the legalization of prostitution in some areas of the state. In countries where prostitution and brothels are legal, brothels may be subject to many and varied restrictions. Forced prostitution is usually illegal as is prostitution by or with minors , though the age may vary. Some countries prohibit particular sex acts.
In some countries, brothels are subject to strict planning restrictions and in some cases are confined to designated red-light districts. Some countries prohibit or regulate how brothels advertise their services, or they may prohibit the sale or consumption of alcohol on the premises. In some countries where operating a brothel is legal, some brothel operators may chose to operate illegally.
Some men and women may travel away from their home to engage with local prostitutes, in a practice called sex tourism , though the destination pattern tends to differ between them.
Sex tourism may arise as a result of stringent anti-prostitution laws in a tourist's home country, but can create social problems in the host country. Businesses that offer prostitution services tend to cluster around military bases. The British naval port of Portsmouth had a flourishing local sex industry in the 19th century, and until the early s there were large red light districts near American military bases in the Philippines. The Monto red-light district of Dublin , one of the largest in Europe, gained most of its custom from the British soldiers stationed in the city; indeed it collapsed after Irish independence was achieved and the soldiers left.
Sex industries are also small but growing in several college towns. According to Lin Lim, an International Labour Organization official who directed a study on prostitution in Southeast Asia, "it is very likely that women who lose their jobs in manufacturing and other service sectors and whose families rely on their remittances may be driven to enter the sex sector.
Conversely, the sex industry in China has been revived by the nation's recent economic success. The nation's liberal economic policies in the early s have been credited with revitalizing the sex industry as rural communities rapidly expand into highly developed urban centers. The city was declared a special economic zone in ; by the twenty-first century what had been a small fishing community developed an advanced commercial sector and a correspondingly large sex industry.
Their governments are challenged in this regard because of the differing contexts that surround prostitution, from voluntary and financially beneficial labor to virtual slavery. The increasing economic prominence of China and Japan have made these issues a global concern. These range from the sex worker, also called adult service provider ASP or adult sex provider, who provides sexual services, to a multitude of support personnel.
Sex workers can be prostitutes, call girls , pornographic film actors , pornographic models , sex show performers, erotic dancers , striptease dancers, bikini baristas , telephone sex operators, cybersex operators, or amateur porn stars for online sex sessions and videos. In addition, like any other industry, there are people who work in or service the sex industry as managers, film crews, photographers, website developers and webmasters , sales personnel, book and magazine writers and editors, etc.
Some create business models, negotiate trade, make press releases, draw up contracts with other owners, buy and sell content, offer technical support, run servers, billing services, or payroll, organise trade shows and various events, do marketing and sales forecasts, provide human resources, or provide tax services and legal support. Usually, those in management or staff do not have direct dealings with sex workers, instead hiring photographers who have direct contact with the sex workers.
Pornography is professionally marketed and sold to adult webmasters for distribution on the Internet. Other members of the sex industry include the hostesses that work in many bars in China.
These hostesses are women who are hired by men to sit and accompany them. This accompaniment entails toasting the men, drinking with them, making conversation, and putting up with flirting and sexual statements. Although this is by no means all of the woman who work as hostesses in the bars of China, they are labeled as "Grey Women".
This means that while they are not prostitutes, they are also not seen as suitable marriage partners for many men. Other woman who are lumped into this category are the permanent mistresses or "second wives" that many Chinese business men have. They do not want their image to the rest of the world to be sullied.
One large difference is that hostesses are given a great deal of freedom to choose whether or not they would like to service a client, although refusal does sometimes spark conflict. Pornography Two performers preparing to shoot a scene for a pornographic film. Pornography is the explicit portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual arousal and erotic satisfaction.
A pornographic model poses for pornographic photographs. A pornographic film actor or porn star performs in pornographic films. In cases where only limited dramatic skills are involved, a performer in pornographic films may be called a pornographic model.
Porn can be provided to the consumer in a variety of media, ranging from books , magazines , postcards , photos , sculpture , drawing , painting , animation , sound recording , film, video , or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction of the act, rather than the act itself. Thus, portrayals such as sex shows and striptease are not classified as pornography.
The first home- PCs capable of network communication prompted the arrival of online services for adults in the late s and early s. The wide-open early days of the World Wide Web quickly snowballed into the dot-com boom , in-part fueled by an incredible global increase in the demand for and consumption of pornography and erotica. Around , the U. Some insights come from meta-analyses synthesising data from prior research. A meta-analysis indicated that pornography consumption is correlated with sexual aggression.
In fact, counterintuitively, pornography has been found to reduce sexual aggression at a societal level. A review stated that all scientific investigations of increases in the availability of pornography show no change or a decrease in the level of sexual offending. It concluded that men who consume pornography are less satisfied with some areas of their lives, but pornography consumption does not make a significant difference in other areas, or to the lives of women.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is the "sexual abuse by the adult and remuneration in cash or kind to the child or a third person or persons. The child is treated as a sexual object and as a commercial object". It includes forms of transactional sex where the sexual abuse of children is not stopped or reported by household members, due to benefits derived by the household from the perpetrator.
Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico have been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children. The style of adult entertainment may be ribaldry or bawdry. Any entertainment that normally includes sexual content qualifies as adult entertainment, including sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for "on demand", as well as adult movie theaters , sex shops , and strip clubs. It also includes sex-oriented men's magazines , sex movies , sex toys and fetish and BDSM paraphernalia.
Opposition to pornography and Sexual ethics The sex industry is very controversial, and many people, organizations and governments have strong moral objections to it, and, as a result, pornography, prostitution, striptease and other similar occupations are illegal in many countries.
The term anti-pornography movement is used to describe those who argue that pornography has a variety of harmful effects on society, such as encouragement of human trafficking , desensitization, pedophilia , dehumanization, exploitation, sexual dysfunction , and inability to maintain healthy sexual relationships. Sociological objections[ edit ] Dolf Zillmann asserts that extensive viewing of pornographic material produces many sociological effects which he characterizes as unfavorable, including a decreased respect for long-term, monogamous relationships, and an attenuated desire for procreation.
An International Perspective" on external validity grounds,  while others claim there is a correlation between pornography and a decrease of sex crimes. Migrant sex work Some researchers have claimed that sex workers can benefit from their profession in terms of immigration status. In her essay "Selling Sex for Visas: However, there have also been repercussions within this community due to the brutal treatment of the workers.
In her essay "What is wrong with prostitution", Carole Pateman makes the point that it is literally the objectification of woman. She also makes the point that prostitution and many other sex industries reinforces the idea of male ownership of a woman. They could be seen as simply jobs. The woman who are working them are breaking free from social norms that would previously keep their sexuality under wraps as immoral.
Supporter of this model of legislation claim reduced illegal prostitution and human trafficking in these countries. They charge that pornography contributes to the male-centered objectification of women and thus to sexism. The sex industry also raises concerns about the spread of STDs.