Case interview A case interview is an interview form used mostly by management consulting firms and investment banks in which the job applicant is given a question, situation, problem or challenge and asked to resolve the situation. The case problem is often a business situation or a business case that the interviewer has worked on in real life.
In recent years, company in other sectors like Design, Architecture, Marketing, Advertising, Finance and Strategy have adopted a similar approach to interviewing candidates. Technology has transformed the Case-based and Technical interview process from a purely private in-person experience to an online exchange of job skills and endorsements.
Panel[ edit ] Another type of job interview found throughout the professional and academic ranks is the panel interview. In this type of interview the candidate is interviewed by a group of panelists representing the various stakeholders in the hiring process. Within this format there are several approaches to conducting the interview. Example formats include; Presentation format — The candidate is given a generic topic and asked to make a presentation to the panel.
Often used in academic or sales-related interviews. Role format — Each panelist is tasked with asking questions related to a specific role of the position. For example, one panelist may ask technical questions, another may ask management questions, another may ask customer service related questions etc.
Skeet shoot format — The candidate is given questions from a series of panelists in rapid succession to test his or her ability to handle stress filled situations. The benefits of the panel approach to interviewing include: This type of interview can be used for selection, promotion, or assessment of team skills. Group interviews can be less costly than one-on-one or panel interviews, especially when many applicants need to be interviewed in a short amount of time. In addition, because fewer interviewers are needed, fewer interviewers need to be trained.
In group interviews the interviewer has to multitask more than when interviewing one applicant at a time. Interviewers in one-on-one interviews are already busy doing many things. These include attending to what applicants are saying and how they are acting, taking notes, rating applicant responses to questions, and managing what they say and how they act.
Interviewing more than one applicant at a time makes it more challenging for the interviewer. This can give applicants questioned later in the interview an advantage over the earlier-questioned applicants.
These problems can make it less likely for group interviews to accurately predict who will perform well on the job. They also found that group interviews were not as effective as one-on-one interviews.
This research needs to be done across various domains outside of the education sector. Research also needs to clarify conflicting findings by determining in which situations study results can be applied.
Stress[ edit ] Stress interviews are still in common use. The ostensible purpose of this interview: Stress interviews might involve testing an applicant's behavior in a busy environment. Questions about handling work overload, dealing with multiple projects, and handling conflict are typical. For example, the interviewer may not make eye contact, may roll his eyes or sigh at the candidate's answers, interrupt, turn his back, take phone calls during the interview, or ask questions in a demeaning or challenging style.
The goal is to assess how the interviewee handles pressure or to purposely evoke emotional responses. This technique was also used in research protocols studying stress and type A coronary-prone behavior because it would evoke hostility and even changes in blood pressure and heart rate in study subjects. The key to success for the candidate is to de-personalize the process. The interviewer is acting a role, deliberately and calculatedly trying to "rattle the cage".
Once the candidate realizes that there is nothing personal behind the interviewer's approach, it is easier to handle the questions with aplomb. Example stress interview questions: Start again — tell me what really makes you tick. One stress technique is to tell the applicant that they have 20 minutes to prepare a presentation, and then come back to room five minutes later and demand that the presentation be given immediately.
The "Platform Test" method involves having the candidate make a presentation to both the selection panel and other candidates for the same job. This is obviously highly stressful and is therefore useful as a predictor of how the candidate will perform under similar circumstances on the job. Selection processes in academic, training, airline, legal and teaching circles frequently involve presentations of this sort.
Microsoft Interview This kind of interview focuses on problem solving and creativity. The questions aim at the interviewee's problem-solving skills and likely show their ability in solving the challenges faced in the job through creativity. Technical interviews are being conducted online at progressive companies before in-person talks as a way to screen job applicants.
Technology in interviews[ edit ] Advancements in technology along with increased usage has led to interviews becoming more common through a telephone interview and through videoconferencing than face-to-face. Companies utilize technology in interviews due to their cheap costs, time-saving benefits, and their ease of use. The ability to convey this complexity allows more media rich forms of communication to better handle uncertainty like what can occur in an interview than shallower and less detailed communication mediums.
Verbal and nonverbal cues are read more in the moment and in relation to what else is happening in the interview. A video interview may have a lag between the two participants. Poor latency can influence the understanding of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, as small differences in the timing of behaviors can change their perception. Likewise, behaviors such as eye contact may not work as well. A video interview would be more media rich than a telephone interview due to the inclusion of both visual and audio data.
Thus, in a more media rich interview, interviewers have more ways to gather, remember, and interpret the data they gain about the applicants. So are these new types of technology interviews better? Research on different interview methods has examined this question using media richness theory. According to the theory, interviews with more richness are expected to result in a better outcome.
In general, studies have found results are consistent with media richness theory. They think that interviews using technology are less fair and less job-related. Interviewers are seen as less friendly in video interviews.
Interviewee strategies and behaviors[ edit ] While preparing for an interview, prospective employees usually look at what the job posting or job description says in order to get a better understanding of what is expected of them should they get hired. Exceptionally good interviewees look at the wants and needs of a job posting and show off how good they are at those abilities during the interview to impress the interviewer and increase their chances of getting a job.
Researching the company itself is also a good way for interviewees to impress lots of people during an interview. It shows the interviewer that the interviewee is not only knowledgeable about the company's goals and objectives , but also that the interviewee has done their homework and that they make a great effort when they are given an assignment. Researching about the company makes sure that employees are not entirely clueless about the company they are applying for, and at the end of the interview, the interviewee might ask some questions to the interviewer about the company, either to learn more information or to clarify on some points that they might have found during their research.
In any case, it impresses the interviewer and it shows that the interviewee is willing to learn more about the company. Most interviewees also find that practising answering the most common questions asked in interviews helps them prepare for the real one. It minimizes the chance of their being caught off-guard regarding certain questions, prepares their minds to convey the right information in the hopes of impressing the interviewer, and also makes sure that they do not accidentally say something that might not be suitable in an interview situation.
Interviewees are generally dressed properly in business attire for the interview, so as to look professional in the eyes of the interviewer. Items like cellphones , a cup of coffee and chewing gum are not recommended to bring to an interview, as it can lead to the interviewer perceiving the interviewee as unprofessional and in some cases, even rude. Above all, interviewees should be confident and courteous to the interviewer, as they are taking their time off work to participate in the interview.
An interview is often the first time an interviewer looks at the interviewee first hand, so it is important to make a good first impression.
For instance, applicants who engage in positive nonverbal behaviors such as smiling and leaning forward are perceived as more likable, trustworthy, credible,  warmer, successful, qualified, motivated, competent,  and socially skilled. You may want to be careful of what you may be communicating through the nonverbal behaviors you display. That is, physical attractiveness is usually not necessarily related to how well one can do the job, yet has been found to influence interviewer evaluations and judgments about how suitable an applicant is for the job.
Once individuals are categorized as attractive or unattractive, interviewers may have expectations about physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals and then judge applicants based on how well they fit those expectations. People generally agree on who is and who is not attractive and attractive individuals are judged and treated more positively than unattractive individuals. Vocal attractiveness, defined as an appealing mix of speech rate, loudness, pitch, and variability, has been found to be favorably related to interview ratings and job performance.
Conducting an interview with elements of structure is a one possible way to decrease bias. Information used by interviewees comes from a variety of sources ranging from popular how-to books to formal coaching programs, sometimes even provided by the hiring organization. Within the more formal coaching programs, there are two general types of coaching. One type of coaching is designed to teach interviewees how to perform better in the interview by focusing on how to behave and present oneself.
This type of coaching is focused on improving aspects of the interview that are not necessarily related to the specific elements of performing the job tasks.
This type of coaching could include how to dress, how to display nonverbal behaviors head nods, smiling, eye contact , verbal cues how fast to speak, speech volume, articulation, pitch , and impression management tactics. It could include a section designed to introduce interviewees to the interview process, and explain how this process works e.
It could also include a section designed to provide feedback to help the interviewee to improve their performance in the interview, as well as a section involving practice answering example interview questions. An additional section providing general interview tips about how to behave and present oneself could also be included. Interviewee knowledge refers to knowledge about the interview, such as the types of questions that will be asked, and the content that the interviewer is attempting to assess.
Faking[ edit ] Interviewers should be aware that applicants can fake their responses during the job interview.
Such applicant faking can influence interview outcomes when present. One concept related to faking is impression management IM; when you intend or do not intend to influence how favorably you are seen during interactions . Impression management can be either honest or deceptive. Deceptive IM tactics are used to embellish or create an ideal image for the job in question. Consequently, candidates who do not use these tactics may be viewed as disinterested in the job.
This can lead to less favorable ratings. Faking in the employment interview can be broken down into four elements: The fourth and final component of faking involves ingratiating oneself to the interviewer by conforming personal opinions to align with those of the organization, as well as insincerely praising or complimenting the interviewer or organization. Most importantly, faking behaviors have been shown to affect outcomes of employment interviews. For example, the probability of getting another interview or job offer increases when interviewees make up answers.
Faking behavior is less prevalent, for instance, in past behavioral interviews than in situational interviews, although follow-up questions increased faking behaviors in both types of interviews.