Ethics of Pre-Natal Gender Determination Sex Selection India Pre-natal gender determination sex selection is an attempt to control the sex of an offspring with a view to achieve the desired sex. Pre-natal Gender Determination Sex Selectionis done to diagnose any birth defects or medical abnormalities in the fetus and employ appropriate treatment.
Below is some insight on the topic and gender determination methods that are ethical and medically proven. Pre natal Gender Determination Sex Selection can be accomplished by several ways of pre- and post-implantation of an embryo, as well as at birth. Gender determination is popularized under the title family balancing.
Two medical advances evolved the demand for sex selection: Reasons for Gender Selection Gender selection is today also used to prevent a genetic disease, which is known as medical gender selection. In some cases, the male offspring inherits a sex-linked disease like muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and may also cause Fragile X syndrome, autism in males, etc.
Need for gender selection can also be psychological, like a single female may want a daughter than a son, parents who lost a child may have a strong desire to conceive a child of the same gender. Gender Selection Clinics in India The gender selection clinics in India provide assistance to couples with known genetic disorders in the family, and those who lost a child and have a strong desire to conceive a child of the same gender.
Although the internet is full of different methods trying to seek your attention for gender determination, there are only two techniques that reliably serve the purpose, one being Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD with In-Vitro Fertilization IVF , and the other is sperm sorting technique called Microsort.
Here embryos can be produced through vitro fertilization, tested for sex chromosomes, genetic variants and disorders. In this procedure, a cell from the embryo is taken from a group of eight cells. An advantage of PGD is that it decreases the chances of passing genetic diseases to their unborn child. In case the diseases are sex related i. Embryos are created from the couple's eggs and sperm.
On the third day post fertilization when embryos reach 6 to 8cells, one cell is removed from the embryo and analyzed for chromosomal makeup. Embryos of only the desired gender are transferred to the uterus. PGD is the only method that virtually guarantees the gender of your choice because embryos are tested before they are implanted in the womb.
These embryos undergo biopsy procedure on the third day of growth allowing a single cell to be analyzed for male or female chromosomes. PGD is the most accurate, involved and most costlytechnique. It is widely preferred by couples with a family history of a genetic disorder and older mothers,as they are more likely to have a baby with genetic birth defects.
PGD is not allowed if couples simply want to influence the gender of their child. Screening processes are stringent and in majority of cases, a couple is accepted only if they have a genetic abnormality they want to avoid. What are the additional PGD methods? Fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH is the most popular PGD technique used today, to count the number of certain chromosomes and observe heir arrangement.
Each chromosome has a DNA pattern near its center. When fluorescent probes are placed on a cell, it can then be read. For instance, if the probe for the X chromosome is of color red then the technician sees two red signals, which means that two X chromosomes are present and the embryois a female. The Y chromosome lights up with another color. This technique also has several drawbacks viz.
Polymerase chain reaction PCR: It is used when a suspected hereditary problem is in the gene rather than at chromosomal level. A copy is made of the target chromosome.
The Y chromosome is targeted for gender selection. If the primer finds target region, PCR then magnifies the region. If this amplified DNA is detected, the target region and the target chromosome is present. If the magnified DNA is not detected, the target chromosome is not present. PCR is used primarily to detect mutations that cause single-gene disorders like cystic fibrosis.
Single nucleotide polymorphismanalys SNP technique: It allows rapid examination of all 23 pairs of chromosomes and single-gene disorders with a high accuracy. It amplifies numerous small sequences on each chromosome with PCR and analyzes them to determine the presence of each and the number of copies.
It is also used to identify mutations that may cause single-gene disorders. Comparative genomic hybridization CGH: CGH was originally used to detect abnormalities in cancer cells, but is now also used to analyze embryonic cells. It can determine the number of copies of the 23 chromosomes. It takes around one week to complete, thus the embryos need to be frozen while the analysis is performed.