Note the two basins and inclined stone lip. Before the advent of the washing machine , laundry was often done in a communal setting. Villages across Europe that could afford it built a wash-house, sometimes known by the French name of lavoir. Water was channelled from a stream or spring and fed into a building, possibly just a roof with no walls. This wash-house usually contained two basins - one for washing and the other for rinsing - through which the water was constantly flowing, as well as a stone lip inclined towards the water against which the wet laundry could be beaten.
Such facilities were more comfortable and convenient than washing in a watercourse. Some lavoirs had the wash-basins at waist height, although others remained on the ground. The launderers were protected to some extent from rain, and their travel was reduced, as the facilities were usually at hand in the village or at the edge of a town.
These facilities were public and available to all families, and usually used by the entire village. Many of these village wash-houses are still standing, historic structures with no obvious modern purpose. The job of doing the laundry was reserved for women , who washed all their family's laundry.
Washerwomen laundresses took in the laundry of others, charging by the piece. As such, wash-houses were an obligatory stop in many women's weekly lives and became a sort of institution or meeting place.
It was a women-only space where they could discuss issues or simply chat cf the concept of the village pump. Indeed, this tradition is reflected in the Catalan idiom "fer safareig" literally, "to do the laundry" , which means to gossip.
European cities also had public wash-houses. The city authorities wanted to give the poorer population, who would otherwise not have access to laundry facilities, the opportunity to wash their clothes. Sometimes these facilities were combined with public baths , see for example Baths and wash houses in Britain. The aim was to foster hygiene and thus reduce outbreaks of epidemics. Sometimes large metal cauldrons a " wash copper ", even when not made of that metal ,  were filled with fresh water and heated over a fire, as hot or boiling water is more effective than cold in removing dirt.
A posser could be used to agitate clothes in a tub. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message The "Woman's Friend" washing machine, circa U.
The Industrial Revolution completely transformed laundry technology. Christine Hardyment, in her history from the Great Exhibition of , argues that it was the development of domestic machinery that led to women's liberation. A laundry-worker took sopping wet clothing and cranked it through the mangle, compressing the cloth and expelling the excess water.
The mangle was much quicker than hand twisting. It was a variation on the box mangle used primarily for pressing and smoothing cloth. Meanwhile, 19th century inventors further mechanized the laundry process with various hand-operated washing machines. Most involved turning a handle to move paddles inside a tub. Then some early 20th century machines used an electrically powered agitator to replace tedious hand rubbing against a washboard.
Many of these were simply a tub on legs, with a hand-operated mangle on top. Later the mangle too was electrically powered, then replaced by a perforated double tub, which spun out the excess water in a spin cycle. Laundry drying was also mechanized, with clothes dryers. Dryers were also spinning perforated tubs, but they blew heated air rather than water.
Chinese laundries in North America[ edit ] See also: Hopkins In the United States and Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century, the occupation of laundry worker was heavily identified with Chinese.
Discrimination, lack of English-language skills, and lack of capital kept Chinese out of most desirable careers. Around , one in four ethnic Chinese men in the U. In , with even this looking to many people like a relatively desirable business, the city's Board of Aldermen passed a law clearly intended to drive the Chinese out of the business. Among other things, it limited ownership of laundries to U.
The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association tried fruitlessly to fend this off, resulting in the formation of the openly leftist Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance CHLA , which successfully challenged this provision of the law, allowing Chinese laundry workers to preserve their livelihoods.
The phrase is presumably kept alive less by historical memories of Chinese laundries in Western countries than by the colorful displays of washing that visitors to China often remark upon. A washerman was called a dhobiwallah, and dhobi became the name of their caste group. The places where they work or worked include Dhobi Ghat in Mumbai. Ancient Rome[ edit ] The workers who cleaned the cloth were called fullones, singular fullo cf fulling , a process in wool-making, and Fuller's earth , used to clean.
Clothes were treated in small tubs standing in niches surrounded by low walls, known as treading or fulling stalls. The tub was filled with water and a mixture of alkaline chemicals sometimes including urine. The fuller stood in the tub and trampled the cloth, a technique known elsewhere as posting. The aim of this treatment was to apply the chemical agents to the cloth so that they could do their work, the resolving of greases and fats.
These stalls are so typical of these workshops that they are used to identify fullonicae in the archaeological remains. Laundry processes[ edit ] Laundry processes include washing usually with water containing detergents or other chemicals , agitation, rinsing, drying, pressing ironing , and folding. The washing will often be done at a temperature above room temperature to increase the activities of any chemicals used and the solubility of stains, and high temperatures kill micro-organisms that may be present on the fabric.
Chemicals[ edit ] Various chemicals may be used to increase the solvent power of water, such as the compounds in soaproot or yucca-root used by Native American tribes, or the ash lye usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide once widely used for soaking laundry in Europe.
Soap , a compound made from lye and fat, is an ancient and common laundry aid. Modern washing machines typically use synthetic powdered or liquid laundry detergent in place of more traditional soap. Cleaning or dry cleaning[ edit ] Main article: Dry cleaning Many dry cleaners place cleaned clothes inside thin clear plastic garment bags. Dry cleaning refers to any process which uses a chemical solvent other than water.
Shared laundry rooms[ edit ] In some parts of the world, including North America, apartment buildings and dormitories often have laundry rooms, where residents share washing machines and dryers. Usually the machines are set to run only when money is put in a coin slot.
In other parts of the world, including Europe, apartment buildings with laundry rooms are uncommon, and each apartment may have its own washing machine. Right to dry movement[ edit ] See also: Project Laundry List Some American communities forbid their residents from drying clothes outside, and citizens protesting this have created a "right to dry" movement.
Many homeowners' associations and other communities in the United States prohibit residents from using a clothesline outdoors, or limit such use to locations that are not visible from the street or to certain times of day. Other communities, however, expressly prohibit rules that prevent the use of clotheslines. Some organizations have been campaigning against legislation which has outlawed line-drying of clothing in public places, especially given the increased greenhouse gas emissions produced by some types of electrical power generation needed to power electric clothes dryers, since driers can constitute a considerable fraction of a home's total energy usage.
Florida "the Sunshine State" is the only state to expressly guarantee a right to dry, although Utah and Hawaii have passed solar rights legislation. The language has been included in a voluntary energy conservation bill, introduced by Senator Dick McCormack. Legislation making it possible for thousands of American families to start using clotheslines in communities where they were formerly banned was passed in Colorado in For wool garments, this is due to scales on the fibers, which heat and agitation cause to stick together.
In cold countries they dry it with their fireplaces, others just have many or buy more garments in preparation for winter or cold times. Other fabrics are stretched by mechanical forces during production, and can shrink slightly when heated though to a lesser degree than wool. Some clothes are "pre-shrunk" to avoid this problem. For example, washing a red shirt with white underwear can result in pink underwear. Often only similar colors are washed together to avoid this problem, which is lessened by cold water and repeated washings.
Sometimes this blending of colors is seen as a selling point , as with madras cloth. Laundry symbols are included on many clothes to help consumers avoid these problems. The word laundry comes from Middle English lavendrye, laundry, from Old French lavanderie, from lavandier.