Shapiro , the term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18, , by Pauline M. Both the racist and the sexist are acting as if all that has happened had never happened, and both of them are making decisions and coming to conclusions about someone's value by referring to factors which are in both cases irrelevant. Sexism is judging people by their sex when sex doesn't matter. Sexism is intended to rhyme with racism. Wells , and Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequality , but did not use the term sexism, which was coined later.
Sociologists who adopted the functionalist paradigm, e. Talcott Parsons , understood gender inequality as the natural outcome of a dimorphic model of gender. The status of women in ancient Egypt depended on their fathers or husbands, but they had property rights and were allowed to attend court, including as plaintiffs. Generally translated into English as The Hammer of Witches which destroyeth Witches and their heresy as with a two-edged sword.
The misogyny of that period played a role in the persecution of these women. All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a woman What else is woman but a foe to friendship, an inescapable punishment, a necessary evil, a natural temptation, a desirable calamity, a domestic danger, a delectable detriment, an evil of nature, painted with fair colours!
In , a woman was beheaded in that country for 'witchcraft and sorcery'. According to Amnesty International, "[T]he ongoing reality of dowry-related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property". Coverture , Marital power , Restitution of conjugal rights , Kirchberg v. Feenstra , and Marriage bar Until the 20th century, U. Happersett , 88 U. Restrictions on married women's rights were common in Western countries until a few decades ago: For example, Yemeni marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.
For instance, in Afghanistan , a wife who leaves her marital home risks being imprisoned for "running away". Violence against women frequently takes the form of sexual violence. Victims of such violence are often accused of promiscuity and held responsible for their fate, while infertile women are rejected by husbands, families and communities.
In many countries, married women may not refuse to have sexual relations with their husbands, and often have no say in whether they use contraception Ensuring that women have full autonomy over their bodies is the first crucial step towards achieving substantive equality between women and men.
Personal issues—such as when, how and with whom they choose to have sex, and when, how and with whom they choose to have children—are at the heart of living a life in dignity. Gender has been used, at times, as a tool for discrimination against women in the political sphere. Women's suffrage was not achieved until , when New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote. Saudi Arabia was the most recent country, as of August , to extend the right to vote to women in Swiss women gained the right to vote in federal elections in ,  and Appenzell Innerrhoden became the last canton to grant women the right to vote on local issues in , when it was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press. Lanyan Chen stated that men hold more political power than women, serving as the gatekeepers of policy making.
It is possible that this leads to women's needs not being properly represented. In this sense, the inequality of law making power also causes the gender discrimination in politics.
Gender stereotypes See also: Gender stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the characteristics and behavior of women and men. Thoman and others hypothesize that "[t]he socio-cultural salience of ability versus other components of the gender-math stereotype may impact women pursuing math". As a result of this experiment and the sociocultural beliefs in the United States, Thoman and others concluded that individuals' academic outcomes can be affected by the gender-math stereotype component that is influenced by the sociocultural beliefs.