Sex violence on tv research paper. Violence in the Media and Entertainment (Position Paper).



Sex violence on tv research paper

Sex violence on tv research paper

Directed to older children. These programs are designed for children age 7 and above. This program contains material that parents may find unsuitable for younger children. This program contains some material that many parents would find unsuitable for children under 14 years of age.

This program is specifically designed to be viewed by adults and therefore may be unsuitable for children under Discussion The TV Parental Guidance system was established over 2 decades ago, yet the level of risk behavior present across rating categories is largely unknown.

Findings from this sample of TV shows revealed that the TV Parental Guidelines did not significantly differentiate any risk behavior across all 4 rating categories, but functioned best for identification of sexual behavior. For substance use, only restricting at the TV-Y7 level would have allowed parents to limit exposure to drinking and smoking depictions. Finally, the ratings system did not allow parents to limit exposure to depictions of the most common risk behavior —TV violence—in part because violence was pervasive across all shows.

TV ratings were able to discriminate only gore, a relatively uncommon type of violence depiction. Considering the growing evidence for links between exposure to interpersonal violence and youth aggression, it should be concerning to child health providers as well as parents that interpersonal violence pervades youth-oriented media. The current study raises the question of why shows aimed at even the youngest of children continue to include violence so frequently as part of the script.

Moreover, research from the National Television Violence Study concluded that much of the violence portrayed in TV was potentially risky for viewers because it was trivialized, glamorized, and sanitized. Additional research across different types of risk behaviors on TV on content, timing, and context of risk behaviors to extend the somewhat contradictory work already done 13 , 22 , 23 may elucidate the overarching messages that youth receive when behaviors are paired or not.

The overall percentage of shows with sexual behavior in our sample aligned with findings in previous research. Although it remains unclear why sexual behavior and gory violence are more effectively evaluated in TV than other risk behaviors, one explanation may be the more refined definition of these behaviors provided through the Federal Communications Commission compared with other behaviors eg, interpersonal violence or substance use.

Clearer definitions and guidance on ratings for other risk behaviors in TV may allow for better usefulness for parents around the full range of risky behavior in TV an upgrade that should include depictions of substance use. Alcohol use was the second most prevalent risk behavior coded. Multiple published prospective studies demonstrating an independent dose-response link between exposure to drinking and smoking behavior in movies and subsequent adolescent drinking and smoking behavior emphasize the need for an update to the ratings to consider substance use, 8 , 24 , 25 because they are currently minimally useful to parents in the identification of substance use in TV, when the evidence strongly suggests they should be.

Conclusions from this study should be considered in light of limitations within the research. The primary limitations of this study were the sample size and sample of shows assessed. Although the number of episodes was substantial for the process of content coding and sampling methodology allowed for greater power to detect effects, a replication of findings within a larger, random sampling of shows across years, target audience, and TV networks would provide additional support for these findings and may identify other factors related to risk behavior depictions.

In addition, shows coded did not include TV-Y and TV-G, which limits our ability to generalize our findings across all rating categories. Additionally, data provided in this article only scratch the surface of media influence on youth as the nuances of context of risk behaviors coded and character analyses were not captured. Nevertheless, our analysis offers an initial insight into how the rating system functions in identifying levels of risk behavior.

Current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics include parental limit-setting of youth media exposure, but the Parental TV Guidelines appear insufficient for differentiation beyond TV-Y7 shows for sexual behavior, smoking, and alcohol use.

Consequently, recommendations for parental coviewing and interventions for parent media literacy posited by the American Academy of Pediatrics 26 appear warranted given present limitations identified in the TV Parental Guidelines, the only rating system used by current blocking technology. The TV Parental Guidelines indicate that, for ratings of TV-PG and above, content may not be suitable for younger children, which aligns with our findings that TV-Y7 was the only category with minimal to no sex and substance use.

Continued monitoring of the discriminatory ability of the Parental TV Guidelines appears warranted, as well as exploration by alternative media firms like Netflix regarding whether better ratings systems, such as those by Common Sense Media, could be incorporated into the program blocking technology in a meaningful way.

Footnotes Accepted June 29, Address correspondence to James D. The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose. The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

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Domestic Violence in TV/Movies (Part 17)



Sex violence on tv research paper

Directed to older children. These programs are designed for children age 7 and above. This program contains material that parents may find unsuitable for younger children. This program contains some material that many parents would find unsuitable for children under 14 years of age. This program is specifically designed to be viewed by adults and therefore may be unsuitable for children under Discussion The TV Parental Guidance system was established over 2 decades ago, yet the level of risk behavior present across rating categories is largely unknown.

Findings from this sample of TV shows revealed that the TV Parental Guidelines did not significantly differentiate any risk behavior across all 4 rating categories, but functioned best for identification of sexual behavior.

For substance use, only restricting at the TV-Y7 level would have allowed parents to limit exposure to drinking and smoking depictions. Finally, the ratings system did not allow parents to limit exposure to depictions of the most common risk behavior —TV violence—in part because violence was pervasive across all shows.

TV ratings were able to discriminate only gore, a relatively uncommon type of violence depiction. Considering the growing evidence for links between exposure to interpersonal violence and youth aggression, it should be concerning to child health providers as well as parents that interpersonal violence pervades youth-oriented media.

The current study raises the question of why shows aimed at even the youngest of children continue to include violence so frequently as part of the script. Moreover, research from the National Television Violence Study concluded that much of the violence portrayed in TV was potentially risky for viewers because it was trivialized, glamorized, and sanitized.

Additional research across different types of risk behaviors on TV on content, timing, and context of risk behaviors to extend the somewhat contradictory work already done 13 , 22 , 23 may elucidate the overarching messages that youth receive when behaviors are paired or not.

The overall percentage of shows with sexual behavior in our sample aligned with findings in previous research. Although it remains unclear why sexual behavior and gory violence are more effectively evaluated in TV than other risk behaviors, one explanation may be the more refined definition of these behaviors provided through the Federal Communications Commission compared with other behaviors eg, interpersonal violence or substance use.

Clearer definitions and guidance on ratings for other risk behaviors in TV may allow for better usefulness for parents around the full range of risky behavior in TV an upgrade that should include depictions of substance use.

Alcohol use was the second most prevalent risk behavior coded. Multiple published prospective studies demonstrating an independent dose-response link between exposure to drinking and smoking behavior in movies and subsequent adolescent drinking and smoking behavior emphasize the need for an update to the ratings to consider substance use, 8 , 24 , 25 because they are currently minimally useful to parents in the identification of substance use in TV, when the evidence strongly suggests they should be.

Conclusions from this study should be considered in light of limitations within the research. The primary limitations of this study were the sample size and sample of shows assessed. Although the number of episodes was substantial for the process of content coding and sampling methodology allowed for greater power to detect effects, a replication of findings within a larger, random sampling of shows across years, target audience, and TV networks would provide additional support for these findings and may identify other factors related to risk behavior depictions.

In addition, shows coded did not include TV-Y and TV-G, which limits our ability to generalize our findings across all rating categories.

Additionally, data provided in this article only scratch the surface of media influence on youth as the nuances of context of risk behaviors coded and character analyses were not captured. Nevertheless, our analysis offers an initial insight into how the rating system functions in identifying levels of risk behavior. Current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics include parental limit-setting of youth media exposure, but the Parental TV Guidelines appear insufficient for differentiation beyond TV-Y7 shows for sexual behavior, smoking, and alcohol use.

Consequently, recommendations for parental coviewing and interventions for parent media literacy posited by the American Academy of Pediatrics 26 appear warranted given present limitations identified in the TV Parental Guidelines, the only rating system used by current blocking technology. The TV Parental Guidelines indicate that, for ratings of TV-PG and above, content may not be suitable for younger children, which aligns with our findings that TV-Y7 was the only category with minimal to no sex and substance use.

Continued monitoring of the discriminatory ability of the Parental TV Guidelines appears warranted, as well as exploration by alternative media firms like Netflix regarding whether better ratings systems, such as those by Common Sense Media, could be incorporated into the program blocking technology in a meaningful way.

Footnotes Accepted June 29, Address correspondence to James D. The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose. The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

Sex violence on tv research paper

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