Background[ edit ] Sri Lanka was embroiled in two JVP insurrections and a civil war for more than two decades. The repression of the second JVP revolution in the Southern Sri Lanka by government forces and paramilitaries has led to many human rights violations.
Up to 60, people mostly Sinhalese, including many students died as a result of this insurgency led by the factions of the Marxist JVP. In July , the most savage anti-minority pogrom in Sri Lanka's history, known as the Black July riots, erupted. Government appointed commission's estimates put the death toll at nearly 1, At least , Tamils fled the island.
The revolt began on 5 April and lasted till June The insurgents were able to capture and hold several towns and rural areas for several weeks until they were recaptured by the armed forces. An estimated 8, - 10, people, mostly young rebels died during this insurrection. Unlike the first unsuccessful JVP insurrection of , the second insurrection was not an open revolt, but appeared to be a low intensity conflict that lasted from to with the JVP resorting to subversion, assassinations, raids and attacks on military and civilian targets.
Both the government and its paramilitaries as well as the rebels of JVP were accused of major HR violations during this period. JVP members are accused of killing its political rivals and civilians who disobeyed their orders by beheading and shooting during this insurrections. Charred dead bodies of suspected JVP members burnt using tyre pyres were a common sight in Sri Lanka during this period.
Family and friends said that he was arrested while walking home from the local post office and that he was tortured in custody. Even after government forces moved in early large number of disappearance and extrajudicial execution were continued. By October , 3, people were estimated to have been killed or to have disappeared in Amparai district. Further Many of the disappeared people were believed to have been killed as a result of extrajudicial execution. Likewise in Batticaloa another 1, people were reported to have disappeared.
They killed Muslims gathered in two mosques, for Friday prayers. Also more than unarmed policemen were murdered, cold blood. A bus full of Buddhist monks were killed at Aranthalawa. However, the true perpetrators of the disappearances are yet to be determined, with the Sri Lankan government and the rebels both accusing each other. Most disappearances of various critics, journalist and others who had disputes with members of the Rajapaksa government as well as kidnapping for ransom has been associated with the "White vans" which were believed to be operated by Military personnel.
Sahadevan was shot dead inside his house during nighttime curfew in an area heavily guarded by the Sri Lankan Army. It was seen as part of the intimidation of Tamil media. Human Rights Watch has said that 62 cases of sexual violence have been documented since the end of the civil war, though the government says that there have only been 5. Similarly, the government asserts that these are isolated cases, while those making the allegations believe that this is a part of an organized government campaign.
One specific link to a formal government program investigated by the BBC found numerous people who say they were tortured at government rehabilitation camps, run for suspected former rebels. Several of those involved have medical documentation of torture along with documentation of having attended these programmes.
Two UN reports have stated that the programme does not meet international standards and that there was a possibility of torture occurring. The government claimed to the BBC that they did not agree with the claims, and asserted that those anonymous people making the reports may have been paid by the Tamil Tigers or tortured by the Tigers themselves. The US State Department reported several human rights abuses in , but it specifically states that there were no confirmed reports of politically motivated killings by the government.
The report states that, "they [LTTE] continued to control large sections of the north and east and engaged in politically motivated killings, disappearances, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, denial of fair public trial, arbitrary interference with privacy, denial of freedom of speech, press, of assembly and association, and the recruitment of child soldiers". The number of civilians massacred in a single incident were as high as Anuradhapura massacre in Some of the major attacks resulting in civilian deaths include the Kebithigollewa massacre , the Gonagala massacre 54 dead , the Dehiwala train bombing 56 dead ,  the Palliyagodella massacre dead and the bombing of Sri Lanka's Central Bank dead.
Further a Claymore antipersonnel mine attack by the LTTE on June 15, on a bus carrying civilians killed 68 people including 15 children, and injured 60 others. Abuses by other groups[ edit ] The TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal TMVP , an armed organization led by Colonel Karuna , was accused by many human rights and non-governmental organizations of recruiting children, torture, assassinations and engaging in extortion in its war against the LTTE.
Some businessmen were killed because their family could not pay the ransom. The prime ministers of India, Canada, and Mauritius refused to attend due to concerns about Sri Lanka's human rights record, including "ongoing allegations of abuse of opposition politicians and journalists". In March , three navy personnel and a former police officer were arrested in relation to the killing of parliamentarian Nadarajah Raviraj in and in August , police also announced that they had arrested several military personnel in relation to the disappearance of journalist and cartoonist Prageeth Eknaligoda.
At least four people were killed and 80 injured. The age can be reduced even further if a quazi allows it. The penal code also exempts Muslims from prosecution for statutory rape if the victim is married to the perpetrator and is 12 or older. Many Muslim girls have attempted suicide to avoid being forcefully married off and girls that oppose marriages are beaten by their families.
Husbands can also get quick divorces without having to offer any explanation while the wife has to endure a long process that requires her to produce witnesses and attend hearings. The laws are administered through special sharia courts administered by quazis. Women are not allowed to be quazis and quazis routinely order women to keep quiet during proceedings, representation through lawyers are also not allowed.
In one instance a girl was sent to her uncle's house by parents due to falling in love with a boy while having education and a visitor to the house asked the family to marry her. The girl refused and was beaten up by the family, and in desperation she cut her arms and took several pills in a failed suicide attempt.
After she hospitalized her family bribed the doctors and took her to a private hospital and later married her off. Her husband regularly abused her and was paranoid of her having an affair with her former love interest. When she revealed her pregnancy he threw her to the floor taunting that he only needed her for one night. As a result, she suffered a miscarriage and the police didn't believe her story and the mosque reunited her with the husband despite her objections.
Then her husband put her phone number on social media which resulted in various strangers asking her to have sex for money. As a result, her education was sabotaged and was unable to even travel outside. In another 4 months pregnant 18 year old died after her husband she married when she was 16, tied her to a chair, poured oil and set on fire. Her husband threatened that he would hurt her other infant if she reported the abuse to the police.
However members of the organizations face harassment and threats from extremist Muslim organizations. Activists have expressed fears to even engage in daily tasks such as traveling and sending children to school due to regular threats.