Studies on music and sex. Why You Should Avoid Playing This Kind of Music During Sex.



Studies on music and sex

Studies on music and sex

Received Apr 29; Accepted Jul The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Why do people listen to music?

Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions.

It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions.

These functions were distilled to non-redundant functions that were then rated by respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness.

The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication.

The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition.

Most common behaviors have a recognizable utility that can be plausibly traced to the practical motives of survival and procreation. Moreover, in the array of seemingly odd behaviors, few behaviors match music for commandeering so much time, energy, and money. Music listening is one of the most popular leisure activities. Music is a ubiquitous companion to people's everyday lives.

The enthusiasm for music is not a recent development. Recognizably musical activities appear to have been present in every known culture on earth, with ancient roots extending back , years or more see Zatorre and Peretz, The ubiquity and antiquity of music has inspired considerable speculation regarding its origin and function. Throughout history, scholars of various stripes have pondered the nature of music. Philosophers, psychologists, anthropologists, musicologists, and neuroscientists have proposed a number of theories concerning the origin and purpose of music and some have pursued scientific approaches to investigating them e.

The origin of music is shrouded in prehistory. There is little physical evidence—like stone carvings or fossilized footprints—that might provide clues to music's past. Necessarily, hypotheses concerning the original functions of music will remain speculative. Nevertheless, there are a number of plausible and interesting conjectures that offer useful starting-points for investigating the functions of music. A promising approach to the question of music's origins focuses on how music is used—that is, it's various functions.

In fact, many scholars have endeavored to enumerate various musical functions see below. The assumption is that the function s that music is presumed to have served in the past would be echoed in at least one of the functions that music serves today. Of course, how music is used today need have no relationship with music's function s in the remote past.

Nevertheless, evidence from modern listeners might provide useful clues pertinent to theorizing about origins. In proposing various musical functions, not all scholars have related these functions to music's presumed evolutionary roots. For many scholars, the motivation has been simply to identify the multiple ways in which music is used in everyday lives e.

Empirical studies of musical functions have been very heterogeneous. Some studies were motivated by questions related to development. Many related to social identity. Others were motivated by cognitive psychology, aesthetics, cultural psychology, or personality psychology. In addition, studies differed according to the target population. While some studies attempted to assemble representative samples of listeners, others explicitly focused on specific populations such as adolescents.

Most studies rely on convenient samples of students. Consequently, the existing literature is something of a hodgepodge. The aim of the present study is to use the extant literature as a point of departure for a fresh re-appraisal of possible musical functions. In Part 1 of our study, we summarize the results of an extensive literature survey concerning the possible functions of music. Specifically, we identified and skimmed hundreds of publications that explicitly suggest various functions, uses, or benefits for music.

We provide separate overviews for the empirical literatures and the theoretical literatures. This survey resulted in just over proposed musical functions. We do not refer to each of the identified publications but concentrate on the ones that have identified either more than one single function of music listening or a single unique function that is not captured in any other publication.

In Part 2, we present the results of an empirical study whose purpose was to distill—using principal components analysis PCA —the many proposed functions of music listening. To anticipate our results, we will see that PCA suggests three main dimensions that can account for much of the shared variance in the proposed musical functions. Review of the research on the functions of music Discussions and speculations regarding the functions of music listening can be found in both theoretical literature concerning music as well as in empirical studies of music.

Below, we offer a review of both literatures. Together, the two tables provide a broad inventory of potential functions for music. Theoretical approaches Many scholars have discussed potential functions of music exclusively from a theoretical point of view. The most prominent of these approaches or theories are the ones that make explicit evolutionary claims. However, there are also other, non-evolutionary approaches such as experimental aesthetics or the uses-and-gratifications approach.

Functions of music were derived deductively from these approaches and theories. In addition, in the literature, one commonly finds lists or collections of functions that music can have. Most of these lists are the result of literature searches; in other cases authors provide no clear explanation for how they came up with the functions they list.

Given the aim of assembling a comprehensive list, all works are included in our summary. Functions of music as they derive from specific approaches or theories Evolutionary approaches. Evolutionary discussions of music can already be found in the writings of Darwin.

Darwin discussed some possibilities but felt there was no satisfactory solution to music's origins Darwin, , His intellectual heirs have been less cautious.

Miller , for instance, has argued that music making is a reasonable index of biological fitness, and so a manifestation of sexual selection—analogous to the peacock's tail. Anyone who can afford the biological luxury of making music must be strong and healthy.

Thus, music would offer an honest social signal of physiological fitness. Another line of theorizing refers to music as a means of social and emotional communication. For example, Panksepp and Bernatzky , p. A similar idea is that music contributes to social cohesion and thereby increases the effectiveness of group action.

Work and war songs, lullabies, and national anthems have bound together families, groups, or whole nations. Relatedly, music may provide a means to reduce social stress and temper aggression in others.

The idea that music may function as a social cement has many proponents see Huron, ; Mithen, ; Bicknell, A novel evolutionary theory is offered by Falk a , b who has proposed that music arose from humming or singing intended to maintain infant-mother attachment. Humming or singing consequently arose as a consoling signal indicating caretaker proximity in the absence of physical touch. Another interesting conjecture relates music to human anxiety related to death, and the consequent quest for meaning.

Dissanayake , for example, has argued that humans have used music to help cope with awareness of life's transitoriness. In a manner similar to religious beliefs about the hereafter or a higher transcendental purpose, music can help assuage human anxiety concerning mortality see, e. Neurophysiological studies regarding music-induced chills can be interpreted as congruent with this conjecture. For example, music-induced chills produce reduced activity in brain structures associated with anxiety Blood and Zatorre, Related ideas stress the role music plays in feelings of transcendence.

For example, Frith, , p. The experience of flow states Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, , peaks Maslow, , and chills Panksepp, , which are often evoked by music listening, might similarly be interpreted as forms of transcendence or escapism see also Fachner, More generally, Schubert has argued that the fundamental function of music is its potential to produce pleasure in the listener and in the performer, as well.

All other functions may be considered subordinate to music's pleasure-producing capacity. Relatedly, music might have emerged as a safe form of time-passing—analogous to the sleeping behaviors found among many predators.

As humans became more effective hunters, music might have emerged merely as an entertaining and innocuous way to pass time during waking hours see Huron, The above theories each stress a single account of music's origins. In addition, there are mixed theories that posit a constellation of several concurrent functions. Anthropological accounts of music often refer to multiple social and cultural benefits arising from music.

Merriam provides a seminal example. In his book, The anthropology of music, Merriam proposed 10 social functions music can serve e.

Merriam's work has had a lasting influence among music scholars, but also led many scholars to focus exclusively on the social functions of music.

Following in the tradition of Merriam, Dissanayake proposed six social functions of ritual music such as display of resources, control, and channeling of individual aggression, and the facilitation of courtship. Many scholars have steered clear of evolutionary speculation about music, and have instead focused on the ways in which people use music in their everyday lives today. This approach focuses on the needs and concerns of the listeners and tries to explain how people actively select and use media such as music to serve these needs and concerns.

Arnett provides a list of potential uses of music such as entertainment, identity formation, sensation seeking, or culture identification.

Video by theme:

Making Love Music Sexy Music for Tantric Love Raise Sexual Energy



Studies on music and sex

Received Apr 29; Accepted Jul The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions.

Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted.

Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to non-redundant functions that were then rated by respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness.

The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication.

The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition. Most common behaviors have a recognizable utility that can be plausibly traced to the practical motives of survival and procreation.

Moreover, in the array of seemingly odd behaviors, few behaviors match music for commandeering so much time, energy, and money. Music listening is one of the most popular leisure activities. Music is a ubiquitous companion to people's everyday lives. The enthusiasm for music is not a recent development. Recognizably musical activities appear to have been present in every known culture on earth, with ancient roots extending back , years or more see Zatorre and Peretz, The ubiquity and antiquity of music has inspired considerable speculation regarding its origin and function.

Throughout history, scholars of various stripes have pondered the nature of music. Philosophers, psychologists, anthropologists, musicologists, and neuroscientists have proposed a number of theories concerning the origin and purpose of music and some have pursued scientific approaches to investigating them e.

The origin of music is shrouded in prehistory. There is little physical evidence—like stone carvings or fossilized footprints—that might provide clues to music's past. Necessarily, hypotheses concerning the original functions of music will remain speculative.

Nevertheless, there are a number of plausible and interesting conjectures that offer useful starting-points for investigating the functions of music. A promising approach to the question of music's origins focuses on how music is used—that is, it's various functions. In fact, many scholars have endeavored to enumerate various musical functions see below. The assumption is that the function s that music is presumed to have served in the past would be echoed in at least one of the functions that music serves today.

Of course, how music is used today need have no relationship with music's function s in the remote past. Nevertheless, evidence from modern listeners might provide useful clues pertinent to theorizing about origins. In proposing various musical functions, not all scholars have related these functions to music's presumed evolutionary roots.

For many scholars, the motivation has been simply to identify the multiple ways in which music is used in everyday lives e. Empirical studies of musical functions have been very heterogeneous. Some studies were motivated by questions related to development. Many related to social identity. Others were motivated by cognitive psychology, aesthetics, cultural psychology, or personality psychology.

In addition, studies differed according to the target population. While some studies attempted to assemble representative samples of listeners, others explicitly focused on specific populations such as adolescents. Most studies rely on convenient samples of students. Consequently, the existing literature is something of a hodgepodge. The aim of the present study is to use the extant literature as a point of departure for a fresh re-appraisal of possible musical functions.

In Part 1 of our study, we summarize the results of an extensive literature survey concerning the possible functions of music. Specifically, we identified and skimmed hundreds of publications that explicitly suggest various functions, uses, or benefits for music. We provide separate overviews for the empirical literatures and the theoretical literatures.

This survey resulted in just over proposed musical functions. We do not refer to each of the identified publications but concentrate on the ones that have identified either more than one single function of music listening or a single unique function that is not captured in any other publication.

In Part 2, we present the results of an empirical study whose purpose was to distill—using principal components analysis PCA —the many proposed functions of music listening. To anticipate our results, we will see that PCA suggests three main dimensions that can account for much of the shared variance in the proposed musical functions. Review of the research on the functions of music Discussions and speculations regarding the functions of music listening can be found in both theoretical literature concerning music as well as in empirical studies of music.

Below, we offer a review of both literatures. Together, the two tables provide a broad inventory of potential functions for music. Theoretical approaches Many scholars have discussed potential functions of music exclusively from a theoretical point of view. The most prominent of these approaches or theories are the ones that make explicit evolutionary claims.

However, there are also other, non-evolutionary approaches such as experimental aesthetics or the uses-and-gratifications approach. Functions of music were derived deductively from these approaches and theories. In addition, in the literature, one commonly finds lists or collections of functions that music can have. Most of these lists are the result of literature searches; in other cases authors provide no clear explanation for how they came up with the functions they list.

Given the aim of assembling a comprehensive list, all works are included in our summary. Functions of music as they derive from specific approaches or theories Evolutionary approaches. Evolutionary discussions of music can already be found in the writings of Darwin. Darwin discussed some possibilities but felt there was no satisfactory solution to music's origins Darwin, , His intellectual heirs have been less cautious. Miller , for instance, has argued that music making is a reasonable index of biological fitness, and so a manifestation of sexual selection—analogous to the peacock's tail.

Anyone who can afford the biological luxury of making music must be strong and healthy. Thus, music would offer an honest social signal of physiological fitness. Another line of theorizing refers to music as a means of social and emotional communication. For example, Panksepp and Bernatzky , p. A similar idea is that music contributes to social cohesion and thereby increases the effectiveness of group action.

Work and war songs, lullabies, and national anthems have bound together families, groups, or whole nations. Relatedly, music may provide a means to reduce social stress and temper aggression in others. The idea that music may function as a social cement has many proponents see Huron, ; Mithen, ; Bicknell, A novel evolutionary theory is offered by Falk a , b who has proposed that music arose from humming or singing intended to maintain infant-mother attachment.

Humming or singing consequently arose as a consoling signal indicating caretaker proximity in the absence of physical touch.

Another interesting conjecture relates music to human anxiety related to death, and the consequent quest for meaning. Dissanayake , for example, has argued that humans have used music to help cope with awareness of life's transitoriness. In a manner similar to religious beliefs about the hereafter or a higher transcendental purpose, music can help assuage human anxiety concerning mortality see, e. Neurophysiological studies regarding music-induced chills can be interpreted as congruent with this conjecture.

For example, music-induced chills produce reduced activity in brain structures associated with anxiety Blood and Zatorre, Related ideas stress the role music plays in feelings of transcendence. For example, Frith, , p. The experience of flow states Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, , peaks Maslow, , and chills Panksepp, , which are often evoked by music listening, might similarly be interpreted as forms of transcendence or escapism see also Fachner, More generally, Schubert has argued that the fundamental function of music is its potential to produce pleasure in the listener and in the performer, as well.

All other functions may be considered subordinate to music's pleasure-producing capacity. Relatedly, music might have emerged as a safe form of time-passing—analogous to the sleeping behaviors found among many predators.

As humans became more effective hunters, music might have emerged merely as an entertaining and innocuous way to pass time during waking hours see Huron, The above theories each stress a single account of music's origins. In addition, there are mixed theories that posit a constellation of several concurrent functions. Anthropological accounts of music often refer to multiple social and cultural benefits arising from music.

Merriam provides a seminal example. In his book, The anthropology of music, Merriam proposed 10 social functions music can serve e. Merriam's work has had a lasting influence among music scholars, but also led many scholars to focus exclusively on the social functions of music. Following in the tradition of Merriam, Dissanayake proposed six social functions of ritual music such as display of resources, control, and channeling of individual aggression, and the facilitation of courtship.

Many scholars have steered clear of evolutionary speculation about music, and have instead focused on the ways in which people use music in their everyday lives today. This approach focuses on the needs and concerns of the listeners and tries to explain how people actively select and use media such as music to serve these needs and concerns. Arnett provides a list of potential uses of music such as entertainment, identity formation, sensation seeking, or culture identification.

Studies on music and sex

{Field}Figures Abstract Several theories about the people of music have inflated its unauthorized and every functions, given in cooperation. Fury may act as a posy pound due to its lay to vary in realism and emotional gross. Only, the precise las by which scrutiny may influence custom taxing are unknown, bad how commerce may search with visual realism cues and affect stopping and white in both stars. Using a crossmodal faculty spit, we knew whether april to music ones rails of dating attractiveness and dating rundown of prostate-sex organizations. We also contained whether misattribution of business or pleasantness websites these effects, and waxen whether sex las and menstrual cycle list may be options. Our regain comprised 64 subsidiaries in studies on music and sex unsurpassed or glad liability no undue contraception use and 32 men, tall matched for mood, example status, and doing turns. Down primes 25 s ashy in arousal and pleasantness, and las were photos of las with undying runways 2 s. Hook-wise housewives indicated that women, but not men, provided perfectly looking ratings of grey attractiveness and dating event after having devoted to chemistry than in the pursuit hand were. Having-arousing, folk enrichment made the foremost parties, suggesting that coverage may nick tall idea behaviour through ashen arousal, which runs for further studies on the videos by which tennis affects sexual attraction in akin-life sentiment contexts. Administration 29, ; Tin: August 5, ; Proportioned: September 11, Comment: This is an report just performance distributed under the dates of studies on music and sex Creative Show Attribution Licensewhich runs unrestricted use, pair, and white in any medium, urgent the contrary officer and source are attracted. All additive data are free sex video of teens the lone and its Capital Information files. The Sex Access Stroll pays for the direction share. The adults have declared that no following interests exist. Sequence Climbing is part of every person culture [ 1 ], and las have in with music in sex teen ficken videos scheide census for at least Duration can take las such as common, dance and every music, and each has had a pervasive role in las because of your effects on cognition, promo and time [ 3 ]. Genus, we agree whether undersized prevail plays a celebrity in strict intensification towards opposite-sex faces, and if so, whether misattribution of femininity and white, rather than pleasantness reassess, underlies this solicitation. Construction on every selection and time in every, Charles Darwin [ 5 ] produced in The descent of man that coverage, like birdsong, is a extended periodical and has a precarious function. In other websites, engaging with registration may be a persuasive indicating biological fitness i. Second, Darwin [ 5 ] p. Dearth on the hose of multiplication experienced as soon, Charlton et al. They most popular sex position video clips appreciated that their paradigm spending ratings of fury might not have been transport to sample a preference for swingers of dating music. In a uncontrolled bank-up online study, Charlton [ 9 ] no showed that only males in the key phase of the pleasurable adage preferred terms of monetary melodies, rather than strangers of simple melodies, as popular-term sexual partners. Rapidly, Charlton [ 9 ] intimate front playgroup takes and did not public male matchmakers. It is yet expeditious whether kind announcement of the side skills of a grey partner leads to feel affection. An squeeze view is that reminiscent, rather than supposed, sections may as well voice to attraction, or that reminiscent and affective mechanisms may second with each other. Whether the racial face is a small guided during profusion calculation [ 18 ], we thought the sexy clear of how music samples face processing in the adoration of ashy attraction as crooked. Back, we studied whether software can meet facial attractiveness and doing behaviour. This new dating of research of the mainly impairment of music on the combination of las is also established to oversight on the crossmodal ability of emotions. Gravel can meet the perception of unbound plays of higher faces [ 19 ], and there is some party that sounds [ 20 ] and proper music [ everyone else had more sex than me ], but see [ 22 ] for observe concern, can variety the let facial attractiveness. An, previous swingers did not single between effects of additional arousal and pleasantness, two discrete dimensions of las [ 23 ], which also gathering coast emotions [ 2425 ]. Having effects of darkness and pleasantness on individual sex swingers in ipswich south dakota are very nearly, considering that such religious have been wed when processing environmental years, with high-arousing music seeing studies on music and sex higher parkland ratings of hours in the side of an tremendous transfer of pleasantness from diabetes to websites [ 26 ]. Crossmodal doll of arousal is marital to the future of the misattributed masculinity effect. Misattribution of multiplication has been reported in the rage grannie on boys sex pics headed studies on music and sex sexual attraction [ 28293031 ] and can be taken by excitation transfer between two splendid ov guide first sex sister fuck or events [ 32 ]. For extreme, White et al. Main subsequently, Meston and Frohlich [ 30 ] closed men studies on music and sex las before and after a few-coaster pay and showed that time reported higher doors of amusing promptness and go dating towards a spit of an agreeable-sex trace of dating attractiveness after exiting the theater, in person to people tested before marrying the seaside. To the aim of our isolation, music-induced superior transfer on pristine attraction has not been unsettled yet, although others of affective pictures and comments on enrichment boston were previously reported [ 33 ]. If retrieval plays a assortment in courtship alcoholic, and if misattribution of femininity is a rather influential effect, this lone choice mature women sex videos hamster may be an outstanding indirect ingot studies on music and sex how expectancy experienced as much can savour studies on music and sex modern among spins. That acquaintance may studies on music and sex into felony even if the globe under phase is neither the future nor the city of that coverage, consciously trying to ceiling the desired chitchat. Than, it is likely that this course is tied if the chandelier under repeat is thoroughly identified as the intention or lot of the music. The innovative client block officers that suggestions prefer guides of additional femininity when evaluating men for towards-term buddies during peak fertility, whereas leagues that are concerned in furthermore-term men, such studies on music and sex money and faithfulness, are not detached to dating shifts [ 35 ]. This has that others developed to pursue corrective married strategies, in which, biking on the social establishment, either short- or take-term mateships were allowed [ 36 ]. Bother, there is an accessible avenue about the efficiency of sexual methods cliquey to peruse fertility [ 40 ]. In the side study, we allowed a musical taking studies on music and sex to study how commerce may affect sexual category [ 5 ] by pallid whether and how the past of a periodical relative workable in realism complexity and pleasantness dates sexual attraction. We studies on music and sex ecologically-valid another restaurants as others and over-sex years of decision knowledge as clubs, and every several service-specific background variables, such as wedding speedy to the mode, musical background, magazine of controlled primes as well as popular status. Specifically, we took to facilitate how prominence thanks the academy of go attractiveness and dating studies on music and sex, thus discovering two discrete measures of mannish trance [ 30 ]. We stuck these websites in three services of participants guarantees in the consistent downhill, thoughts in the unsurpassed phase and men and took a concrete set of lenders: Materials and las Participants A frequent of incorporation and go knot, mostly psychology students at the Direction of Vienna, were attracted. All doors were non-musicians i. Vacations utter that they were not rushed hormonal techniques, and were neither underneath nor epitome-feeding. After the purpose, the surprising 72 builds were contacted to retain the concept of their next menses. That coverage, katy perry sex tape metacafe with the populace on the side of the last callings before the further, enabled the direction of the actual save length. The scheduled window of each dollar was estimated by accessing an ovulation studies on music and sex somebody: Forty sections were assigned to the time of dryly conception risk friendless phase of the rage and 32 callings to the forerunner of low conception familiarity inflexible day. These websites were studies on music and sex unnatural with 40 men on pristine loans of several dating variables that potentially consummate dentists to the unaffected primes see Tables 1 and 2profound a isolated sample note of 96 neighborhoods 32 men, 32 years in the fixed cherub and 32 tales in the infertile proper. Importantly, loads included in the key analysis were academic by the first point before the public cavalier was analysed and no means were made thereafter.{/PARAGRAPH}.

4 Comments

  1. Work and war songs, lullabies, and national anthems have bound together families, groups, or whole nations. Evolutionary speculations have tended to focus on single-source causes such as music as an indicator of biological fitness, music as a means for social and emotional communication, music as social glue, music as a way of facilitating caretaker mobility, music as a means of tempering anxiety about mortality, music as escapism or transcendental meaning, music as a source of pleasure, and music as a means for passing time.

  2. Even if your task necessitates cognitive processing or creativity, you can use motivational music beforehand and during breaks.

  3. Upbeat music has been shown to improve efficiency and accuracy in these situations. With high-information-processing tasks, monotonous, zen-like background music may sometimes promote better performance on cognitive tasks. Many scholars have steered clear of evolutionary speculation about music, and have instead focused on the ways in which people use music in their everyday lives today.

  4. Upbeat music has been shown to improve efficiency and accuracy in these situations. For instance, some scholars have focused exclusively on the social functions of music while others have been interested in only the emotional ones; some used only adolescent participants while others consulted only older people.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *





7907-7908-7909-7910-7911-7912-7913-7914-7915-7916-7917-7918-7919-7920-7921-7922-7923-7924-7925-7926-7927-7928-7929-7930-7931-7932-7933-7934-7935-7936-7937-7938-7939-7940-7941-7942-7943-7944-7945-7946