Over the following months, O'Herne and six other Dutch women were repeatedly raped and beaten, day and night, by Japanese personnel. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi , however, the comfort stations did not solve, but aggravated the first two problems.
Yoshimi has asserted, "The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and revolt. That is why it provided women". Earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service.
However, as Japan continued military expansion, the military found itself short of Japanese volunteers, and turned to the local population to coerce women into serving in these stations, or abducted them. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping.
Middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea , Taiwan, Manchukuo , and China. These sources soon dried up, especially from Japan. Many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels. This might have provided them with some insight into the nature of Japanese, as opposed to British, colonial rule, as well what might be in store for their sisters and daughters.
The military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare. When the locals were considered hostile in China, Japanese soldiers carried out the "Three Alls Policy" "kill all-burn all-loot all" which included indiscriminately kidnapping and raping local civilians. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial.
In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing to having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokkeitai members having arrested women on the streets and putting them in brothels after enforced medical examinations.
According to China, the documents provide ironclad proof that the Japanese military forced Asian women to work in front-line brothels before and during World War II. New documents discovered in China shed light on facilities inside comfort stations operated within a Japanese army compound, and the conditions of the Korean comfort women. Documents were discovered verifying the Japanese Army as the funding agency for purchasing some comfort women.
Documents were found in Shanghai that showed details of how the Japanese Army went about opening comfort stations for Japanese troops in occupied Shanghai.
Documents included the Tianjin Municipal Archives from the archival files of the Japanese government and the Japanese police during the periods of the occupation in World War II. Municipal archives from Shanghai and Nanjing were also examined.
One conclusion reached was that the relevant archives in Korea are distorted. A conclusion of the study was that the Japanese Imperial government, and the colonial government in Korea, tried to avoid recording the illegal mobilization of comfort women.
It was concluded that they burned most of the records immediately before the surrender; but, the study confirmed that some documents and records survived. Vast amounts of material pertaining to war crimes, and the responsibility of the nation's highest leaders, were destroyed on the orders of the Japanese government at the end of the war.
The BBC quotes ", to ,", and the International Commission of Jurists quotes "estimates of historians of , to , women. According to Hata, the total number of government-regulated prostitutes in Japan was only , during World War II. Cumings stated that between , and , Korean girls and women were recruited. The women forced into prostitution may therefore be much higher than the Dutch record have previously indicated.
The number of Dutch women that were sexually assaulted or molested were also largely ignored. Most were adolescent girls aged 14—19 who had completed some education and were deceived through promises of higher education in Tokyo or Singapore.
Interviews conducted with former comfort women also suggest that some women came from the island of Flores. After the war, many Javanese comfort women who survived stayed in the locations where they had been trafficked to and became integrated into local populations.
This was done in , when a former comfort woman forced to work for Showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota. I was told if I were drafted, I could earn lots of money in a textile factory The first day I was raped and the rapes never stopped I was born a woman but never lived as a woman I feel sick when I come close to a man.
Not just Japanese men, but all men-even my own husband who saved me from the brothel. I shiver whenever I see a Japanese flag Why should I feel ashamed? I don't have to feel ashamed. For example, Dutch women captured in the Dutch East Indies modern Indonesia were reserved exclusively for the officers. They were systematically beaten and raped day and night.
House of Representatives committee: Many stories have been told about the horrors, brutalities, suffering and starvation of Dutch women in Japanese prison camps. But one story was never told, the most shameful story of the worst human rights abuse committed by the Japanese during World War II: Even the Japanese doctor raped me each time he visited the brothel to examine us for venereal disease.
Over the following four months the girls were raped and beaten day and night, with those who became pregnant forced to have abortions. After four harrowing months, the girls were moved to a camp at Bogor, in West Java, where they were reunited with their families. This camp was exclusively for women who had been put into military brothels, and the Japanese warned the inmates that if anyone told what had happened to them, they and their family members would be killed.
Several months later the O'Hernes were transferred to a camp at Batavia, which was liberated on August 15, The court testimonies state that these prepubescent girls were repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers  while those who refused to comply were executed.
In Burma, there were cases of Korean "comfort women" committing suicide by swallowing cyanide pills or being killed by having a hand grenade tossed into their dug-outs. British soldiers fighting in Burma often reported that the Korean "comfort women" whom they captured were astonished to learn that the British were not going to eat them. According to the report, Korean girls were deceived into being used as comfort women by the Japanese; in , there were about girls trafficked from Korea to Burma in this manner of obtaining comfort women.
His book has been widely criticized as distorting the facts by both Japanese and South Korean historians. However, it was a plagiarism of a Japanese book by the zainichi author Kim Il-Myeon.
Hiding the facts and mixing them with your own assertions is something that newspapers do all the time too". Takashi Uemura , a journalist who wrote one of the retracted articles, was subject to similar attacks from conservatives, and his employer, Hokusei Gakuen University , was pressured to terminate his position.
In , China released documents it said were "ironclad proof" that the comfort women were forced to work as prostitutes against their will, including documents from the Japanese Kwantung Army military police corps archives and documents from the national bank of Japan's puppet regime in Manchuria.
A young ethnic Chinese woman from one of the Imperial Japanese Army 's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer. Japan intended to directly compensate individuals, but the Korean government insisted on receiving the sum itself and "spent most of the money on economic development, focusing on infrastructure and the promotion of heavy industry".
Eventually, 61 former Korean comfort women accepted 5 million yen approx. In , documents which had been stored since when they were returned by United States troops and which indicated that the military had played a large role in operating what were euphemistically called "comfort stations" were found in the library of Japan's Self-Defense Agency.
We should never forget our feelings of remorse over this. As Prime Minister of Japan, I would like to declare anew my remorse at these deeds and tender my apology to the people of the Republic of Korea. On March 27 the Japanese parliament issued an official apology. The Korean government will administer the fund for the forty-six remaining elderly comfort women and will consider the matter "finally and irreversibly resolved".
A comic book, Neo Gomanism Manifesto Special — On Taiwan by Japanese author Yoshinori Kobayashi , depicts kimono-clad women lining up to sign up for duty before a Japanese soldier. Kobayashi's book contains an interview with Taiwanese industrialist Shi Wen-long , who stated that no women were forced to serve and that the women worked in more hygienic conditions compared to regular prostitutes because the use of condoms was mandatory.
In July , then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, a strong advocate of the cause, denounced the use of the euphemism 'comfort women' for what should be referred to as 'enforced sex slaves'. Human Rights Commissioner Navi Pillay had also spoken out in support of comfort women several times. In the Rorschach test , the women showed distorted perceptions, difficulty in managing emotional reactions and internalized anger.
There is a nursing home, called House of Sharing , for former comfort women in South Korea. China remains more at the testimony collection stage, particularly through the China "Comfort Women" Issue Research Center at Shanghai Normal University ,  sometimes in collaboration with Korean researchers.
After World War II, former Korean comfort women were afraid to reveal their past, because they are afraid of being disowned or ostracized further.